Annual Publication Lists

1999 Publications

Adams, P.J., J.H. Seinfeld, and D.M. Koch, 1999: Global concentrations of tropospheric sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium aerosol simulated in a general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13791-13823, doi:10.1029/1999JD900083.

Alcolea, J., J.R. Pardo, V. Bujarrabal, R. Bachiller, A. Barcia, F. Colomer, J.D. Gallego, J. Gómez-González, A. del Pino Cisneros, P. Planesas, S. del Río, A. Rodríguez-Franco, A. del Romero, M. Tafalla, and P. de Vicente, 1999: Six years of short-spaced monitoring of the v=1 and v=2, J=1-0 28SiO maser emission in evolved stars. Astron. Astrophys. Supp. Ser., 139, 461-482.

Alexandrov, M.D., A.A. Lacis, M.E. Carlson, and B. Cairns, 1999: Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone by means of the Multifilter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer. In Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere IV, 20 Sep. 1999, Florence, Italy, Proc. SPIE, vol. 3867, p. 156, doi:10.1117/12.373069.

Allison, M., J.D. Ross, and N. Solomon, 1999: Mapping the Martian meteorology. In Fifth International Conference on Mars, LPI Contribution No. 972, Lunar and Planetary Institute.

Avishai, Y., Y. Band, and D. Brown, 1999: Conductance distribution between Hall plateaus. Phys. Rev. B, 60, 8992-8998, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.60.8992.

Balachandran, N.K., D. Rind, P. Lonergan, and D.T. Shindell, 1999: Effects of solar cycle variability on the lower stratosphere and the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27321-27339, doi:10.1029/1999JD900924.

Brydon, D., S. Sun, and R. Bleck, 1999: A new approximation of the equation of state for sea water, suitable for numerical ocean models. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1537-1540, doi:10.1029/1998JC900059.

Cairns, B., E.E. Russell, and L.D. Travis, 1999: The Research Scanning Polarimeter: Calibration and ground-based measurements. In Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, 18 Jul. 1999, Denver, Col., Proc. SPIE, vol. 3754, p. 186, doi:10.1117/12.366329.

Canuto, V.M., 1999: Overshooting in massive stars: Conceptual problems and suggested solution. Astrophys. J., 518, L119-L122, doi:10.1086/312082.

Canuto, V.M., 1999: Turbulence in stars. III. Unified treatment of diffusion, convection, semiconvection, salt fingers, and differential rotation. Astrophys. J., 524, 311-340, doi:10.1086/307783.

Canuto, V.M., and M.S. Dubovikov, 1999: A dynamical model for turbulence. VII. Complete system of five orthogonal tensors for shear-driven flows. Phys. Fluids, 11, 659-664, doi:10.1063/1.869937.

Canuto, V.M., M.S. Dubovikov, and G. Yu, 1999: A dynamical model for turbulence. IX. Reynolds stresses for shear-driven flows. Phys. Fluids, 11, 678-691, doi:10.1063/1.869939.

Canuto, V.M., M.S. Dubovikov, and G. Yu, 1999: A dynamical model for turbulence. VIII. IR and UV Reynolds stress spectra for shear-driven flows. Phys. Fluids, 11, 665-677, doi:10.1063/1.869938.

Chowdhary, J., 1999: Multiple Scattering of Polarized Light in Atmosphere-Ocean Systems: Application to Sensitivity Analyses of Aerosol Polarimetry. Ph.D. thesis. Columbia University.

Christie-Blick, N., L.E. Sohl, and M.J. Kennedy, 1999: Technical Comment: Considering a Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth. Science, 284, 1087, doi:10.1126/science.284.5417.1087a.

Ciais, P., P. Friedlingstein, D.S. Schimel, and P.P. Tans, 1999: A global calculation of the δ13C of soil respired carbon: Implications for the biospheric uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 13, 519-530, doi:10.1029/98GB00072.

Cole, J.E., D. Rind, R.S. Webb, J. Jouzel, and R. Healy, 1999: Climatic controls on interannual variability of precipitation δ18O: Simulated influence of temperature, precipitation amount, and vapor source region. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 14223-14235, doi:10.1029/1999JD900182.

Curry, J.A., C.A. Clayson, W.B. Rossow, R. Reeder, Y.-C. Zhang, P.J. Webster, G. Liu, and R.-S. Sheu, 1999: High-resolution satellite-derived dataset of the surface fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum for the TOGA COARE IOP. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 2059-2080, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2059:HRSDDO>2.0.CO;2.

Denning, A.S., M. Holzer, K.R. Gurney, M. Heimann, R.M. Law, P.J. Rayner, I.Y. Fung, S.-M. Fan, S. Taguchi, P. Friedlingstein, Y. Balkanski, J. Taylor, M. Maiss, and I. Levin, 1999: Three-dimensional transport and concentration of SF6: A model intercomparison study (TransCom 2). Tellus, 51B, 266-297, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.1999.00012.x.

Dlugach, Z.M., and M.I. Mishchenko, 1999: Coherent backscatter as one of the possible mechanisms of forming the oppoistion brightness peak for some bodies of the Solar System. Sol. Sys. Res., 33, 472-481.

Douglass, A.R., M.J. Prather, T.M. Hall, S.E. Strahan, P.J. Rasch, L.C. Sparling, L. Coy, and J.M. Rodriguez, 1999: Choosing meteorological input for the global modeling initiative assessment of high-speed aircraft. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 27545-27564, doi:10.1029/1999JD900827.

Druyan, L., P. Lonergan, and T. Eichler, 1999: A GCM investigation of global warming impacts relevant to tropical cyclone genesis. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 607-617, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(199905)19:6<607::AID-JOC383>3.0.CO;2-M.

Eichler, T.P., 1999: An Evaluation of ENSO and Climate Change Using the GCM/ZC Model. Ph.D. thesis. Columbia University.

Faluvegi, G.S., K. Alapaty, H.G. Reichle, R. Mathur, S. Raman, and V.S. Connors, 1999: Simulation of carbon monoxide transport during April 1994. J. Geophys. Res., 104, no. D17, 21471-21485, doi:10.1029/1998JD100030.

Ferrari, M.R., J.R. Miller, and G.L. Russell, 1999: Modeling the effect of wetlands, flooding, and irrigation on river flow: Application to the Aral Sea. Water Resour. Res., 35, 1869-1876.

Friedlingstein, P., G. Joel, C.B. Field, and I.Y. Fung, 1999: Toward an allocation scheme for global terrestrial carbon models. Glob. Change Biol., 5, 755-770, doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.1999.00269.x.

Geogdzhayev, I.V., and M.I. Mishchenko, 1999: Sensitivity analysis of aerosol retrieval algorithms using two-channel satellite radiance data. In Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere III, 2 Jun. 2003, Denver, Col., Proc. SPIE, vol. 3763, p. 155, doi:10.1117/12.363609.

Goyet, C., C. Coatanoan, G. Eischeid, T. Amaoka, K. Okuda, R. Healy, and S. Tsunogai, 1999: Spatial variation of total CO2 and total alkalinity in the northern Indian Ocean: A novel approach for the quantification of anthropogenic CO2 in seawater. J. Mar. Res., 57, 135-163, doi:10.1357/002224099765038599.

Greene, A.M., W.S. Broecker, and D. Rind, 1999: Swiss glacier recession since the Little Ice Age: Reconciliation with climate records. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1909-1912, doi:10.1029/1999GL900380.

Grenfell, J.L., R.M. Harrison, A.G. Allen, J.P. Shi, S.A. Penkett, C.D. O'Dowd, M.H. Smith, M.K. Hill, L. Robertson, C.N. Hewitt, B. Davison, A.C. Lewis, D.J. Creasey, D.E. Heard, K. Hebestreit, B. Alicke, and J. James, 1999: An analysis of rapid increases in condensation nuclei concentrations at a remote coastal site in western Ireland. J. Geophys. Res., 104, no. D11, 13771-13780, doi:10.1029/1999JD900096.

Hall, T.M., D.W. Waugh, K.A. Boering, and R.A. Plumb, 1999: Evaluation of transport in stratospheric models. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 18815-18839, doi:10.1029/1999JD900226.

Han, Q., W.B. Rossow, J. Chou, K.-S. Kuo, and R.M. Welch, 1999: The effects of aspect ratio and surface roughness on satellite retrievals of ice-cloud properties. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 63, no. 2-6, 559-583, doi:10.1016/S0022-4073(99)00039-4.

Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, J. Glascoe, and M. Sato, 1999: GISS analysis of surface temperature change. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30997-31022, doi:10.1029/1999JD900835.

Heusser, C.J., L.E. Heusser, and D. Peteet, 1999: Humptulips revisited: A revised interpretation of Quaternary vegetation and climate of western Washington, USA. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 150, 191-221, doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(98)00225-9.

Huo, W.M., and D. Brown, 1999: Finite-element Z-matrix method: Application to electron-molecule collisions. Phys. Rev. A, 60, 295-305, doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.60.295.

Jin, Z., and J.J. Simpson, 1999: Bidirectional anisotropic reflectance of snow and sea ice in AVHRR Channel 1 and 2 spectral regions. I. Theoretical analysis. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37, no. 1, 543-554, doi:10.1109/36.739110.

Joussaume, S., K.E. Taylor, P. Braconnot, J.F.B. Mitchell, J.E. Kutzbach, S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, A.J. Broccoli, A. Abe-Ouchi, P.J. Bartlein, C. Bonfils, B. Dong, J. Guiot, K. Herterich, C.D. Hewitt, D. Jolly, J.W. Kim, A. Kislov, A. Kitoh, M.F. Moutre, V. Masson, B. McAvaney, N. McFarlane, Noblet, W.R. Peltier, J.Y. Peterschmitt, D. Pollard, D. Rind, J.F. Royer, M.E. Schlesinger, J. Syktus, S. Thompson, V. Valdes, G. Vettoretti, R.S. Webb, and U. Wyputta, 1999: Monsoon changes for 5000 years ago: Results of 18 simulations from the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP). Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 859-862, doi:10.1029/1999GL900126.

Kerwin, M.W., J.T. Overpeck, R.S. Webb, A. DeVernal, D.H. Rind, and R.J. Healy, 1999: The role of oceanic forcing in mid-Holocene Northern Hemisphere climatic change. Paleoceanography, 14, 200-210, doi:10.1029/1998PA900011.

Kneller, M., and D. Peteet, 1999: Late-glacial to early Holocene climate changes from a central Appalachian pollen and macrofossil record. Quat. Res., 51, 133-147, doi:10.1006/qres.1998.2026.

Koch, D., D. Jacob, I. Tegen, D. Rind, and M. Chin, 1999: Tropospheric sulfur simulation and sulfate direct radiative forcing in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23799-23822, doi:10.1029/1999JD900248.

Le Marshall, J.F., J.J. Simpson, and Z. Jin, 1999: Satellite calibration using a collocated nadir observation technique: theoretical basis and application to the GMS-5 Pathfinder benchmark period. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37, no. 1, 499-507, doi:10.1109/36.739100.

Lean, J., and D. Rind, 1999: Evaluating Sun-climate relationships since the Little Ice Age. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 61, 25-36, doi:10.1016/S1364-6826(98)00113-8.

Lee, D.S., R.D. Kingdon, J.M. Pacyna, A.F. Bouwman, and I. Tegen, 1999: Modelling base cations in Europe — Sources, transport and deposition of calcium. Atmos. Environ., 33, 2241-2256, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00169-1.

Ma, Q., and R.H. Tipping, 1999: The averaged density matrix in the coordinate representation: Application to the calculation of the far-wing line shapes for H2O. J. Chem. Phys., 111, 5909-5921, doi:10.1063/1.479886.

Ma, Q., R.H. Tipping, C. Boulet, and J. Bouanich, 1999: Theoretical far-wing line shape and absorption for high-temperature CO2. Appl. Opt., 38, 599-604, doi:10.1364/AO.38.000599.

Mickley, L.J., P.P. Murti, D.J. Jacob, J.A. Logan, D.M. Koch, and D. Rind, 1999: Radiative forcing from tropospheric ozone calculated with a unified chemistry-climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30153-30172, doi:10.1029/1999JD900439.

Miller, R.L., and I. Tegen, 1999: Radiative forcing of a tropical direct circulation by soil dust aerosols. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 2403-2433, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<2403:RFOATD>2.0.CO;2.

Mishchenko, M.I., J.M. Dlugach, E.G. Yanovitskij, and N.T. Zakharova, 1999: Bidirectional reflectance of flat, optically thick particulate layers: An efficient radiative transfer solution and applications to snow and soil surfaces. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 63, 409-432, doi:10.1016/S0022-4073(99)00028-X.

Mishchenko, M.I., I.V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W.B. Rossow, and A.A. Lacis, 1999: Aerosol retrievals over the ocean using channel 1 and 2 AVHRR data: A sensitivity analysis and preliminary results. Appl. Opt., 38, 7325-7341, doi:10.1364/AO.38.007325.

Mishchenko, M.I., and A. Macke, 1999: How big should hexagonal ice crystals be to produce halos? Appl. Opt., 38, 1626-1629, doi:10.1364/AO.38.001626.

Mishchenko, M.I., L.D. Travis, and J.W. Hovenier, 1999: Introduction to special section: Electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 31671-31672, doi:10.1029/1999JD900491.

Mishchenko, M.I., L.D. Travis, and J.W. Hovenier, 1999: Preface: Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 63, 127-129, doi:10.1016/S0022-4073(99)00010-2.

Mishchenko, M.I., and G. Videen, 1999: Single-expansion EBCM computations for osculating spheres. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 63, 231-236.

Parikh, J.A., J.S. DaPonte, J.N. Vitale, and G. Tselioudis, 1999: An evolutionary system for recognition and tracking of synoptic-scale storm systems. Pattern Recogn. Lett., 20, 1389-1396.

Parry, M., C. Rosenzweig, A. Iglesias, G. Fischer, and M. Livermore, 1999: Climate change and world food security: A new assessment. Glob. Environ. Change, 9, S51-S67.

Peteet, D.M., 1999: Paleoecology. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. D. Alexander and R.W. Fairbridge, Eds., Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Kluwer Academic, pp. 465-466, doi:10.1007/1-4020-4494-1_250.

Phillips, J., B. Rajagopalan, M. Cane, and C. Rosenzweig, 1999: The role of ENSO in determining climate and maize yield variability in the U.S. cornbelt. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 877-888, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(19990630)19:8<877::AID-JOC406>3.0.CO;2-Q.

Prigent, C., W.B. Rossow, E. Matthews, and B. Marticorena, 1999: Microwave radiometric signatures of different surface types in deserts. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 12147-12158, doi:10.1029/1999JD900153.

Prigent, C., and W.R. Rossow, 1999: Retrieval of surface and atnospheric parameters over land from SSM/I: Potential and limitations. Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 2379-2400, doi:10.1002/qj.49712555903.

Rampino, M.R., 1999: Argument supporting explosive igneous activity for the origin of "cryptoexplosion" structures in the midcontinent, United States: Comments Geology. vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 279-280, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0279:ASEIAF>2.3.CO;2.

Rampino, M.R., 1999: Evidence for abrupt latest Permian mass extinction of foraminifera: Results of tests for the Signor-Lipps effect: Reply. Geology, 27, no. 4, 383-384, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0383:EFALPM>2.3.CO;2.

Rind, D., 1999: A model subject: Book review of Global Energy and Water Cycles, edited by K. A. Browning and R. J. Gurney. Nature, 398, 480, doi:10.1038/19019.

Rind, D., 1999: Viewpoint: Complexity and climate. Science, 284, 105-107, doi:10.1126/science.284.5411.105.

Rind, D., J. Lean, and R. Healy, 1999: Simulated time-dependent climate response to solar radiative forcing since 1600. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1973-1990, doi:10.1029/1998JD200020.

Rind, D., J. Lerner, K. Shah, and R. Suozzo, 1999: Use of on-line tracers as a diagnostic tool in general circulation model development: 2. Transport between the troposphere and stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9151-9167, doi:10.1029/1999JD900006.

Rosenzweig, C., and D. Hillel, 1999: Climate and biosphere. Natl. Forum, 79, 2:25-29.

Rosenzweig, C., A. Iglesias, G. Fischer, Y. Liu, W. Baethgen, and J.W. Jones, 1999: Wheat yield functions for analysis of land-use in China. Environ. Model. Assess., 4, 115-132, doi:10.1023/A:1019008116251.

Rossow, W.B., and R.A. Schiffer, 1999: Advances in understanding clouds from ISCCP. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 80, 2261-2288, doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<2261:AIUCFI>2.0.CO;2.

Russell, G., and D. Rind, 1999: Response to CO2 transient increase in the GISS Coupled Model: Regional coolings in a warming climate. J. Climate, 12, 531-539, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0531:RTCTII>2.0.CO;2.

Schmidt, G.A., 1999: Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations. Paleoceanography, 14, 422-429, doi:10.1029/1999PA900008.

Schmidt, G.A., 1999: Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model. Paleoceanography, 14, 482-497, doi:10.1029/1999PA900025.

Sheth, S., 1999: Ocean Circulation Changes and Greenhouse Warming Predicted by Coupled GCMs. Ph.D. thesis. Columbia University.

Shindell, D., D. Rind, N. Balachandran, J. Lean, and P. Lonergan, 1999: Solar cycle variability, ozone, and climate. Science, 284, 305-308, doi:10.1126/science.284.5412.305.

Shindell, D.T., R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399, 452-455, doi:10.1038/20905.

Shindell, D.T., D. Rind, and N. Balachandran, 1999: Interannual variability of the Antarctic ozone hole in a GCM. Part II: A comparison of unforced and QBO induced variability. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1873-1884, doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<1873:IVOTAO>2.0.CO;2.

Sohl, L.E., N. Christie-Blick, and D.V. Kent, 1999: Paleomagnetic polarity reversals in Marinoan (ca. 600 Ma) glacial deposits of Australia: Implications for the duration of low-latitude glaciation in Neoproterozoic time. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 111, 1120-1139.

Spencer, J.R., L.K. Tamppari, and T.Z. Martin, 1999: Temperatures on Europa from Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer: Nighttime thermal anomalies. Science, 284, 1514-1516, doi:10.1126/science.284.5419.1514.

Stothers, R.B., 1999: A semiempirical test for dynamical instability in luminous blue variables. Astrophys. J., 516, 366-368, doi:10.1086/307117.

Stothers, R.B., 1999: Criterion for the dynamical stability of a non-adiabatic spherical self-gravitating body. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 305, 365-372, doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.02444.x.

Stothers, R.B., 1999: Rotational effects on the dynamical instability of luminous blue variables. Astrophys. J., 513, 460-463, doi:10.1086/306837.

Stothers, R.B., 1999: Volcanic dry fogs, climate cooling, and plague pandemics in Europe and the Middle East. Climatic Change, 42, 713-723, doi:10.1023/A:1005480105370.

Stothers, R.B., and C.-W. Chin, 1999: The brightest supergiants predicted by theory. Astrophys. J., 522, 960-964, doi:10.1086/307680.

Strzepek, K.M., D.C. Major, C. Rosenzweig, A. Iglesias, D.N. Yates, A. Holt, and D. Hillel, 1999: New methods of modeling water availability for agriculture under climate change: The U.S. Cornbelt. J. Amer. Water Resour. Assoc., 35, 1639-1655, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.1999.tb04242.x.

Stubenrauch, C.J., W.B. Rossow, F. Cheruy, A. Chédin, and N.A. Scott, 1999: Clouds as seen by satellite sounders (3I) and imagers (ISCCP). Part I. Evaluation of cloud parameters. J. Climate, 12, 2189-2213, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<2189:CASBSS>2.0.CO;2.

Stubenrauch, C.J., W.B. Rossow, N.A. Scott, and A. Chédin, 1999: Clouds as seen by satellite sounders (3I) and imagers (ISCCP). Part III: Spatial heterogeneity and radiative effects. J. Climate, 12, 3419-3442, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<3419:CASBSS>2.0.CO;2.

Sun, S., R. Bleck, C. Rooth, J. Dukowicz, E. Chassignet, and P. Killworth, 1999: Inclusion of thermobaricity in isopycnis-coordinate ocean models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 2719-2729, doi:10.1175/1520-0485(1999)029<2719:IOTIIC>2.0.CO;2.

Taylor, J.P., and A.S. Ackerman, 1999: A case-study of pronounced perturbations to cloud properties and boundary-layer dynamics due to aerosol emissions. Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 2643-2661, doi:10.1256/smsqj.55914.

Tubiello, F.N., J.W. Druitt, and B.D.V. Marino, 1999: Dynamics of the global water cycle of Biosphere 2. Ecol. Eng., 13, 287-300.

Tubiello, F.N., G. Lin, J.W. Druitt, and B.D.V. Marino, 1999: Ecosystem-level evapotranspiration and water-use efficiency in the desert biome of Biosphere 2. Ecol. Eng., 13, 263-271.

Tubiello, F.N., T. Mahato, T. Morton, J.W. Druitt, T. Volk, and B.D.V Marino, 1999: Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: Observations and modeling. Ecol. Eng., 13, 273-286.

Tubiello, F.N., C. Rosenzweig, B.A. Kimball, P.J. Pinter, Jr., G.W. Wall, D.J. Hunsaker, R.L. LaMorte, and R.L. Garcia, 1999: Testing CERES-Wheat with Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment data: CO2 and water interactions. Agron. J., 91, 247-255.

Wang, J., W.B. Rossow, T. Uttal, and M. Rozendaal, 1999: Variability of cloud vertical structure during ASTEX observed from a combination of rawinsonde, radar, ceilometer, and satellite. Mon. Weather Rev., 127, 2484-2502, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<2484:VOCVSD>2.0.CO;2.

Wong, S., M.J. Prather, and D.H. Rind, 1999: Seasonal and interannual variability of the budgets of N2O and CCl3F. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 23899-23909, doi:10.1029/1999JD900776.

Yao, M.-S., and A.D. Del Genio, 1999: Effects of cloud parameterization on the simulation of climate changes in the GISS GCM. J. Climate, 12, 761-779, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<0761:EOCPOT>2.0.CO;2.

Ye, B., 1999: Cumulus Anvil Cloud Properties, CAPE and Climate Change. Ph.D. thesis. Columbia University.

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