Author Bibliographies

Publications by Gavin A. Schmidt

In Press / Accepted

Rugenstein, M., J. Bloch-Johnson, A. Abe-Ouchi, T. Andrews, U. Beyerle, L. Cao, T. Chadha, G. Danabasoglu, J. Dufresne, L. Duan, M. Foujols, T. Frölicher, O. Geoffroy, J. Gregory, R. Knutti, C. Li, A. Marzocchi, T. Mauritsen, M. Menary, E. Moyer, L. Nazarenko, D. Paynter, D. Saint-Martin, G.A. Schmidt, A. Yamamoto, and S. Yang, 2019: LongRunMIP — Motivation and design for a large collection of millennial-length AO-GCM simulations. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., in press, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0068.1.


Abramowitz, G., N. Herger, E. Gutmann, D. Hammerling, R. Knutti, M. Leduc, R. Lorenz, R. Pincus, and G.A. Schmidt, 2019: Model dependence in multi-model climate ensembles: weighting, sub-selection and out-of-sample testing. Earth Syst. Dynam., 10, 91-105, doi:10.5194/esd-10-91-2019.

Alexander, P.M., A.N. LeGrande, E. Fischer, M. Tedesco, X. Fettweis, M. Kelley, S.M.J. Nowicki, and G.A. Schmidt, 2019: Simulated Greenland surface mass balance in the GISS ModelE2 GCM: Role of the ice sheet surface. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 123, no. 3, 750-765, doi:10.1029/2018JF004772.

Jin, Z., Y.-C. Zhang, A. Del Genio, G. Schmidt, and M. Kelley, 2019: Cloud scattering impact on thermal radiative transfer and global longwave radiation. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 239, 106669, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2019.106669.

Lenssen, N., G. Schmidt, J. Hansen, M. Menne, A. Persin, R. Ruedy, and D. Zyss, 2019: Improvements in the GISTEMP uncertainty model. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 124, no. 12, 6307-6326, doi:10.1029/2018JD029522.

Schmidt, G.A., and A. Frank, 2019: The Silurian Hypothesis: Would it be possible to detect an industrial civilization in the geological record? Intl. J. Astrobiol., 18, 142-150, doi:10.1017/S1473550418000095.

Susskind, J., G.A. Schmidt, J.N. Lee, and L. Iredell, 2019: Recent global warming as confirmed by AIRS. Environ. Res. Lett., 14, no. 4, 044030, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aafd4e.


Dyez, K.A., B. Hönisch, and G.A. Schmidt, 2018: Early Pleistocene obliquity-scale pCO2 variability at ∼1.5 million years ago. Paleoceanogr. Paleoclimatol., 33, no. 11, 1270-1291, doi:10.1029/2018PA003349.

Kageyama, M., P. Braconnot, S.P. Harrison, A.M. Haywood, J. Jungclaus, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J.-Y. Peterschmitt, A. Abe-Ouchi, S. Albani, P.J. Bartlein, C. Brierley, M. Crucifix, A. Dolan, L. Fernandez-Donado, H. Fischer, P.O. Hopcroft, R.F. Ivanovic, F. Lambert, D.J. Lunt, N.M. Mahowald, W.R. Peltier, S.J. Phipps, D.M. Roche, G.A. Schmidt, L. Tarasov, P.J. Valdes, Q. Zhang, and T. Zhou, 2018: The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 — Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis plan. Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1033-1057, doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1033-2018.

Marvel, K.D., R. Pincus, G.A. Schmidt, and R.L. Miller, 2018: Internal variability and disequilibrium confound estimates of climate sensitivity from observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, no. 3, 1595-1601, doi:10.1002/2017GL076468.

Rind, D., G.A. Schmidt, J. Jonas, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, M. Kelley, and J. Romanski, 2018: Multi-century instability of the Atlantic Meridional Circulation in rapid warming simulations with GISS ModelE2. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, no. 12, 6331-6355, doi:10.1029/2017JD027149.

Santer, B.D., P.W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K.E. Taylor, T.M.L. Wigley, J.R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P.J. Gleckler, P.D. Jones, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G.A. Schmidt, S.C. Sherwood, and F.J. Wentz, 2018: Consistency of modeled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. In Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues. E.A. Lloyd and E. Winsberg, Eds. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 85-136, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-65058-6_5.


Jungclaus, J.H., E. Bard, M. Baroni, P. Braconnot, J. Cao, L.P. Chini, T. Egorova, M. Evans, J.F. González-Rouco, H. Goosse, G.C. Hurtt, F. Joos, J.O. Kaplan, M. Khodri, K. Klein Goldewijk, N. Krivova, A.N. LeGrande, S.J. Lorenz, J. Luterbacher, W. Man, M. Meinshausen, A. Moberg, C. Nehrbass-Ahles, B.I. Otto-Bliesner, S.J. Phipps, J. Pongratz, E. Rozanov, G.A. Schmidt, H. Schmidt, W. Schmutz, A. Schurer, A.I. Shapiro, M. Sigl, J.E. Smerdon, S.K. Solanki, C. Timmreck, M. Toohey, I.G. Usoskin, S. Wagner, C.-Y. Wu, K.L. Yeo, D. Zanchettin, Q. Zhang, and E. Zorita, 2017: The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 — Part 3: The last millennium, scientific objective and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations. Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4005-4033, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017.

PAGES Hydro2k Consortium, J.E. Smerdon, J. Luterbacher, S.J. Phipps, K.J. Anchukaitis, T. Ault, S. Coats, K.M. Cobb, B.I. Cook, C. Colose, T. Felis, A. Gallant, J.H. Jungclaus, B. Konecky, A. LeGrande, S. Lewis, A.S. Lopatka, W. Man, J.S. Mankin, J.T. Maxwell, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J.W. Partin, D. Singh, N.J. Steiger, S. Stevenson, J.E. Tierney, D. Zanchettin, H. Zhang, A.R. Atwood, L. Andreu-Hayles, S.H. Baek, B. Buckley, E.R. Cook, R. D'Arrigo, S.G. Dee, M. Griffiths, C. Kulkarni, Y. Kushnir, F. Lehner, C. Leland, H.W. Linderholm, A. Okazaki, J. Palmer, E. Piovano, C.C. Raible, M.P. Rao, J. Scheff, G.A. Schmidt, R. Seager, M. Widmann, A.P. Williams, and E. Xoplaki, 2017: Comparing proxy and model estimates of hydroclimate variability and change over the Common Era. Clim. Past, 13, 1851-1900, doi:10.5194/cp-13-1851-2017.

Schmidt, G.A., D. Bader, L.J. Donner, G.S. Elsaesser, J.-C. Golaz, C. Hannay, A. Molod, R. Neale, and S. Saha, 2017: Practice and philosophy of climate model tuning across six U.S. modeling centers. Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3207-3223, doi:10.5194/gmd-10-3207-2017.

Schmidt, G.A., and S.D. Donner, 2017: Scientific advocacy: A tool for assessing the risks of engagement. Bull. Atom. Sci., 73, no. 5, 344-347, doi:10.1080/00963402.2017.1364008.

Schmidt, G.A., J. Severinghaus, A. Abe-Ouchi, R.B. Alley, W. Broecker, E. Brook, K. Etheridge, K. Kawamura, R.F. Kelling, M. Leinen, K.D. Marvel, and T.F. Stocker, 2017: Overestimate of committed warming. Nature, 547, E16-E17, doi:10.1038/nature22803.


Marvel, K., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, and L. Nazarenko, 2016: Implications for climate sensitivity from the response to individual forcings. Nature Clim. Change, 6, no. 4, 386-389, doi:10.1038/nclimate2888.


Marvel, K., G. Schmidt, K. Tsigaridis, and B.I. Cook, 2015: Sensitivity to factors underlying the hiatus. US CLIVAR Variations, 13, no. 3, 25-29.

Marvel, K., G.A. Schmidt, D. Shindell, C. Bonfils, A.N. LeGrande, L. Nazarenko, and K. Tsigaridis, 2015: Do responses to different anthropogenic forcings add linearly in climate models? Environ. Res. Lett., 10, no. 10, 104010, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/104010.

Nazarenko, L., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, N. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. Ruedy, G.L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T.L. Clune, A.D. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, J.E. Hansen, R.J. Healy, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, A.N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, M.J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang, 2015: Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, no. 1, 244-267, doi:10.1002/2014MS000403.

Schmidt, G.A., 2015: What should climate scientists advocate for? Bull. Atom. Sci., 71, no. 1, 70-74, doi:10.1177/0096340214563677.

Schmidt, G.A., and S. Sherwood, 2015: A practical philosophy of complex climate modelling. Eur. J. Phil. Sci., 5, no. 2, 149-169, doi:10.1007/s13194-014-0102-9.

Stevens, B., A. Abe-Ouchi, S. Bony, G. Hegerl, G. Schmidt, S. Sherwood, and M. Webb, 2015: Ringberg15: Earth's Climate Sensitivities: 23-27 March, Schloss Ringberg, Germany. WCRP Report No. 11/2015. World Climate Research Programme.

Tremblay, L.B., G.A. Schmidt, S. Pfirman, R. Newton, and P. DeRepentigny, 2015: Is ice-rafted sediment in a North Pole marine record evidence for perennial sea-ice cover? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 373, no. 2052, doi:10.1098/rsta.2014.0168.


Field, R.D., D. Kim, A.N. LeGrande, J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2014: Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, no. 16, 6030-6036, doi:10.1002/2014GL060572.

Fischer, R.P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2014: A system of conservative regridding for ice-atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM). Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 883-907, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014.

Lewis, S.C., A.N. LeGrande, G.A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley, 2014: Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the pre-industrial and mid-Holocene. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, no. 12, 7064-7082, doi:10.1002/2013JD020961.

Miller, R.L., G.A. Schmidt, L.S. Nazarenko, N. Tausnev, S.E. Bauer, A.D. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.K. Lo, R. Ruedy, D.T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Cheng, T.L. Clune, G. Faluvegi, J.E. Hansen, R.J. Healy, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, A.N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Pérez García-Pando, J.P. Perlwitz, M.J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G.L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang, 2014: CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, no. 2, 441-477, doi:10.1002/2013MS000266.

Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G.A. Schmidt, and J. Lean, 2014: The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, no. 14, 8798-8824, doi:10.1002/2014JD021678.

Santer, B.D., C. Bonfils, J.F. Painter, M.D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G.A. Schmidt, J.C. Fyfe, J.N.S. Cole, L. Nazarenko, K.E. Taylor, and F.J. Wentz, 2014: Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature. Nature Geosci., 7, no. 3, 185-189, doi:10.1038/ngeo2098.

Schmidt, G.A., 2014: On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming, by Joshua P. Howe. Science, 344, 256, doi:10.1126/science.1251819.

Schmidt, G.A., J.D. Annan, P.J. Bartlein, B.I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J.C. Hargreaves, S.P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A.N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M.E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou, 2014: Using paleo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5. Clim. Past, 10, 221-250, doi:10.5194/cp-10-221-2014.

Schmidt, G.A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, G.L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S.E. Bauer, M.K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Cheng, T.L. Clune, A. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. Faluvegi, J.E. Hansen, R.J. Healy, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, A.N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, E.E. Matthews, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, V. Oinas, A.O. Oloso, J.P. Perlwitz, M.J. Puma, W.M. Putman, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, S. Sun, R.A. Syed, N. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang, 2014: Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, no. 1, 141-184, doi:10.1002/2013MS000265.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis, 2014: Reconciling warming trends. Nature Geosci., 7, no. 3, 158-160, doi:10.1038/ngeo2105.


Lewis, S.C., A.N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2013: Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, no. 2, 243-262, doi:10.1029/2012JD017804.

Monteleoni, C., G.A. Schmidt, F. Alexander, A. Niculescu-Mizil, K. Steinhaeuser, M. Tippett, A. Banerjee, M.B. Blumenthal, A.R. Ganguly, J.E. Smerdon, and M. Tedesco, 2013: Climate informatics. In Computational Intelligent Data Analysis for Sustainable Development. T. Yu, N. Chawla, and S. Simoff, Eds., Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Series. Chapman and Hall/CRC, pp. 81-126.

Monteleoni, C., G.A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade, 2013: Climate informatics: Accelerating discovering in climate science with machine learning. Comput. Sci. Eng., 15, 32-41, doi:10.1109/MCSE.2013.50.

Romanou, A., W.W. Gregg, J. Romanski, M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G.A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev, 2013: Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation. Ocean Model., 66, 26-44, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008.

Santer, B.D., J.F. Painter, C. Bonfils, C.A. Mears, S. Solomon, T.M.L. Wigley, P.J. Gleckler, G.A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N.P. Gillett, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, and F.J. Wentz, 2013: Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110, 17235-17240, doi:10.1073/pnas.1305332110.

Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G.A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy, 2013: Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions. Nature Clim. Change, 3, 567-670, doi:10.1038/nclimate1835.

Shindell, D.T., O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, B. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. Schmidt, 2013: Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2653-2689, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013.


Field, R.D., C. Risi, G.A. Schmidt, J. Worden, A. Voulgarakis, A.N. LeGrande, A.H. Sobel, and R.J. Healy, 2012: A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H2O retrieval simulator for climate models. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10485-10504, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012.

Lunt, D.J., A.M. Haywood, G.A. Schmidt, U. Salzmann, P.J. Valdes, H.J. Dowsett, and C.A. Loptson, 2012: On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 321-322, 128-138, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042.

Schmidt, G.A., 2012: Climate sensitivity - How sensitive is Earth's climate to CO2? PAGES News, 20, no. 1, 11.

Schmidt, G.A., J.H. Jungclaus, C.M. Ammann, E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T.J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N.A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D.T. Shindell, S.K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L.E.A. Vieira, 2012: Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1). Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 185-191, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012.

Sun, M., J. Li, C. Yang, G.A. Schmidt, M. Bambacus, R. Cahalan, Q. Huang, C. Xu, E.U. Noble, and Z. Li, 2012: A web-based geovisual analytical system for climate studies. Future Internet, 4, 1069-1085, doi:10.3390/fi4041069.

Vieira, L.E.A., A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, M. Kretzschmar, G.A. Schmidt, and M.C.M. Cheung, 2012: How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L16104, doi:10.1029/2012GL052950.


Carozza, D.A., L.A. Mysak, and G.A. Schmidt, 2011: Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05702, doi:10.1029/2010GL046038.

Koch, D., S. Bauer, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, J.R. McConnell, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, D. Rind, R. Ruedy, G.A. Schmidt, and D. Shindell, 2011: Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate twentieth century transient model investigation: Trends in short-lived species and climate responses. J. Climate, 24, 2693-2714, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1.

Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, G.A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama, 2011: Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D24101, doi:10.1029/2010JD015209.

Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. LeGrande, J.-L.F. Li, G. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann, 2011: Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 741-752, doi:10.5194/acp-11-741-2011.

LeGrande, A., and G. Schmidt, 2011: Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy. Paleoceanography, 26, PA3225, doi:10.1029/2010PA002043.

Lewis, S.C., M.K. Gagan, L.K. Ayliffe, J.-X. Zhao, W.S. Hantoro, P.C. Treble, J.C. Hellstrom, A.N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, G.A. Schmidt, and B.W. Suwargadi, 2011: High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 303, 133-142, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048.

Monteleoni, C., G.A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund, 2011: Tracking climate models. Stat. Anal. Data Mining, 4, 372-392, doi:10.1002/sam.10126.

Schmidt, G.A., J.H. Jungclaus, C.M. Ammann, E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T.J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N.A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D.T. Shindell, S.K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L.E.A. Vieira, 2011: Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0). Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 33-45, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011.

Schmidt, G.A., M.E. Mann, and S.E. Rutherford, 2011: Discussion of: "A statistical analysis of multiple temperature proxies: Are reconstructions of surface temperatures over the last 1000 years reliable?". Ann. Appl. Stat., 5, 65-70, doi:10.1214/10-AOAS398D.

Tierney, J.E., S.C. Lewis, B.I. Cook, A.N. LeGrande, and G.A. Schmidt, 2011: Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 307, 103-112, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038.


Field, R.D., G.W.K. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G.A. Schmidt, 2010: A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L05706, doi:10.1029/2009GL041408.

Foster, G., J.D. Annan, P.D. Jones, M.E. Mann, B. Mullan, J. Renwick, J. Salinger, G.A. Schmidt, and K.E. Trenberth, 2010: Comment on "Influence of the Southern Oscillation on tropospheric temperature" by J.D. McLean, C.R. de Freitas, and R.M. Carter. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D09110, doi:10.1029/2009JD012960.

Lacis, A.A, G.A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R.A. Ruedy, 2010: Atmospheric CO2: Principal control knob governing Earth's temperature. Science, 330, 356-359, doi:10.1126/science.1190653.

Lewis, S.C., A.N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2010: Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events. Clim. Past, 6, 325-343, doi:10.5194/cp-6-325-2010.

Lunt, D.J., A.M. Haywood, G.A. Schmidt, U. Salzmann, P.J. Valdes, and H.J. Dowsett, 2010: Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data. Nature Geosci., 3, 60-64, doi:10.1038/NGEO706.

Schmidt, G., 2010: Does science progress? Glibert Plass redux. Amer. Scientist, 98, no. 1, 64-65, doi:10.1511/2010.82.58.

Schmidt, G.A, 2010: Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change. J. Quat. Sci., 25, 79-87, doi:10.1002/jqs.1314.

Schmidt, G.A., R. Ruedy, R.L. Miller, and A.A. Lacis, 2010: The attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D20106, doi:10.1029/2010JD014287.


Benestad, R.E., and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Solar trends and global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14101, doi:10.1029/2008JD011639.

Field, C.V., and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D12110, doi:10.1029/2008JD011217.

Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, and D.T. Shindell, 2009: Interpreting 10Be changes during the Maunder Minimum. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02113, doi:10.1029/2008JD010578.

Jones, P.D., K.R. Briffa, T.J. Osborn, J.M. Lough, T.D. van Ommen, B.M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E.R. Wahl, F.W. Zwiers, M.E. Mann, G.A. Schmidt, C.M. Ammann, B.M. Buckley, K.M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J.T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A.W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki, 2009: High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: A review of current status and future prospects. The Holocene, 19, 3-49, doi:10.1177/0959683608098952.

Koch, D., S. Menon, A. Del Genio, R. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Distinguishing aerosol impacts on climate over the past century. J. Climate, 22, 2659-2677, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1.

LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives. Clim. Past, 5, 441-455, doi:10.5194/cp-5-441-2009.

Mann, M.E., G.A. Schmidt, S.K. Miller, and A.N. LeGrande, 2009: Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05708, doi:10.1029/2008GL036354.

Schmidt, G., 2009: Wrong but useful. Phys. World, 13, no. 10, 33-35.

Schmidt, G., and D. Archer, 2009: Climate change: Too much of a bad thing. Nature, 458, 1117-1118, doi:10.1038/4581117a.

Schmidt, G., and J. Wolfe, 2009: Climate Change: Picturing the Science. W.W. Norton.

Schmidt, G.A., 2009: Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments. V. Gornitz, Ed., Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, pp. 696-700.

Schmidt, G.A., 2009: Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 2041-2048, doi:10.1002/joc.1831.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S.E. Bauer, 2009: Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions. Science, 326, 716-718, doi:10.1126/science.1174760.

Usoskin, I.G., C.V. Field, G.A. Schmidt, A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G.A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R.K. Ungar, 2009: Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06108, doi:10.1029/2008JD011333.

Wright, J.S., A.H. Sobel, and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12804, doi:10.1029/2009GL038091.


Carlson, A.E., A.N. LeGrande, D.W. Oppo, R.E. Came, G.A. Schmidt, F.S. Anslow, J.M. Licciardi, and E.A. Obbink, 2008: Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. Nature Geosci., 1, 620-624, doi:10.1038/ngeo285.

Foster, G., J.D. Annan, G.A. Schmidt, and M.E. Mann, 2008: Comment on "Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth's climate system" by S.E. Schwartz. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009373.

LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, 2008: Ensemble, water-isotope enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2-kyr event. Paleoceanography, 23, PA3207, doi:10.1029/2008PA001610.

Masson-Delmotte, V., S. Hou, A. Ekaykin, J. Jouzel, A. Aristarain, R.T. Bernardo, D. Bromwich, O. Cattani, M. Delmotte, S. Falourd, M. Frezzotti, H. Gallée, L. Genoni, E. Isaksson, A. Landais, M.M. Helsen, G. Hoffmann, J. Lopez, V. Morgan, H. Motoyama, D. Noone, H. Oerter, J.R. Petit, A. Royer, R. Uemura, G.A. Schmidt, E. Schlosser, J.C. Simöes, E.J. Steig, B. Stenni, M. Stievenard, M.R. van den Broeke, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.J. van de Berg, F. Vimeux, and J.W.C. White, 2008: A review of Antarctic surface snow isotopic composition: Observations, atmospheric circulation, and isotopic modeling. J. Climate, 21, 3359-3387, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1.

Santer, B.D., P.W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K.E. Taylor, T.M.L. Wigley, J.R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P.J. Gleckler, P.D. Jones, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G.A. Schmidt, S.C. Sherwood, and F.J. Wentz, 2008: Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 1703-1722, doi:10.1002/joc.1756.

Schmidt, G., 2008: Commentary: To blog or not to blog? Nature Geosci., 1, 208, doi:10.1038/ngeo170.

Sud, Y.C., G.K. Walker, Y.P. Zhou, G.A. Schmidt, K.M. Lau, and R.F. Cahalan, 2008: Effects of doubled CO2 on tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for onset of deep convection and maximum SST: Simulations based inferences. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12707, doi:10.1029/2008GL033872.


Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, P. Kharecha, A. Lacis, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, K. Lo, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, J. Jonas, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, R. Schmunk, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2007: Climate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS modelE. Clim. Dyn., 29, 661-696, doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, P. Kharecha, A. Lacis, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, K. Lo, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, J. Jonas, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, R. Schmunk, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2007: Dangerous human-made interference with climate: A GISS modelE study. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2287-2312, doi:10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007.

Harder, S.L., D.T. Shindell, G.A. Schmidt, and E.J. Brook, 2007: A GCM study of CH4 emissions during the Holocene and glacial-interglacial transitions constrained by ice core data. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1011, doi:10.1029/2005GB002680.

Little, C.M., M. Oppenheimer, R.B. Alley, V. Balaji, G.K.C. Clarke, T.L. Delworth, R. Hallberg, D.M. Holland, C.L. Hulbe, S. Jacobs, J.V. Johnson, H. Levy, W.H. Lipscomb, S.J. Marshall, B.R. Parizek, A.J. Payne, G.A. Schmidt, R.J. Stouffer, D.G. Vaughan, and M. Winton, 2007: Toward a new generation of ice sheet models. Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. U., 88, no. 52, 578-579, doi:10.1029/2007EO520002.

Oppo, D.W., G.A. Schmidt, and A.N. LeGrande, 2007: Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L13701, doi:10.1029/2007GL030017.

Romanou, A., B. Liepert, G.A. Schmidt, W.B. Rossow, R.A. Ruedy, and Y.-C. Zhang, 2007: 20th Century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05713, doi:10.1029/2006GL028356.

Schmidt, G., 2007: Clouding the issue of climate. Phys. World, 20, no. 6 (June 2007), 44-45.

Schmidt, G.A., 2007: The physics of climate modeling. Phys. Today, 60, no. 1, 72-73.

Schmidt, G.A., A.N. LeGrande, and G. Hoffmann, 2007: Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10103, doi:10.1029/2006JD007781.

Schmidt, G.A., A. Romanou, and B. Liepert, 2007: Further comment on "A perspective on global warming, dimming, and brightening". Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. U., 88, no. 45, 473.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, S.E. Bauer, D. Koch, N. Unger, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, and D.G. Streets, 2007: Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008753.

Toptygin, A.Y., K.G. Gribanov, V.I. Zakharov, Y. Kasai, A. Kagawa, Y. Murayama, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, G. Hoffmann, and J. Jouzel, 2007: Determination of vertical HDO/H2O profile from high-resolution atmospheric transmission spectra. Atmos. Ocean. Opt. J., 20, 224-228.

Tremblay, L.B., M.M. Holland, I.V. Gorodetskaya, and G.A. Schmidt, 2007: An ice-free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science. Comput. Sci. Eng., 9, no. 3, 65-74.


Aleinov, I., and G.A. Schmidt, 2006: Water isotopes in the GISS ModelE land surface scheme. Glob. Planet. Change, 51, 108-120, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.12.010.

Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, D. Koch, and C. Salyk, 2006: Modeling production and climate-related impacts on 10Be concentration in ice cores. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D15107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006410.

Henderson-Sellers, A., M. Fischer, I. Aleinov, K. McGuffie, W.J. Riley, G.A. Schmidt, K. Sturm, K. Yoshimura, and O. Irannejad, 2006: Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes: Results of iPILPS Phase 1. Glob. Planet. Change, 51, 34-58, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.003.

Koch, D., G.A. Schmidt, and C.V. Field, 2006: Sulfur, sea salt and radionuclide aerosols in GISS ModelE. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06206, doi:10.1029/2004JD005550.

LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, 2006: Global gridded data set of the oxygen isotopic composition in seawater. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12604, doi:10.1029/2006GL026011.

LeGrande, A.N., G.A. Schmidt, D.T. Shindell, C.V. Field, R.L. Miller, D.M. Koch, G. Faluvegi, and G. Hoffmann, 2006: Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103, 837-842, doi:10.1073/pnas.0510095103.

Miller, R.L., R.V. Cakmur, J.P. Perlwitz, I.V. Geogdzhayev, P. Ginoux, K.E. Kohfeld, D. Koch, C. Prigent, R. Ruedy, G.A. Schmidt, and I. Tegen, 2006: Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06208, doi:10.1029/2005JD005796.

Miller, R.L., G.A. Schmidt, and D.T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.

Schmidt, G.A., 2006: La modélisation de variations climatiques. In L'Homme face au climat. E. Bard, Ed. Odile-Jacob, pp. 103-130. (In French)

Schmidt, G.A., R. Ruedy, J.E. Hansen, I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, A.D. Friend, T.M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G.L. Russell, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, P.H. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao, 2006: Present day atmospheric simulations using GISS ModelE: Comparison to in-situ, satellite and reanalysis data. J. Climate, 19, 153-192, doi:10.1175/JCLI3612.1.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, J.E. Hansen, and S. Sun, 2006: Solar and anthropogenic forcing of tropical hydrology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24706, doi:10.1029/2006GL027468.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Unger, E. Aguilar, G.A. Schmidt, D.M. Koch, S.E. Bauer, and R.L. Miller, 2006: Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4427-4459, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006.

Toptygin, A.Y., K.G. Gribanov, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, and V.I. Zakharov, 2006: Latitudinal variations of the vertical profiles and columnar HDO/H2O ratio in the atmosphere over the ocean retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data. Atmos. Ocean. Opt. J., 19, 787-791.


Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, and D. Koch, 2005: Solar and climate effects on 10Be. Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital., 76, 805-809.

Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, J. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G.A. Schmidt, and N. Tausnev, 2005: Earth's energy imbalance: Confirmation and implications. Science, 308, 1431-1435, doi:10.1126/science.1110252.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2005: Efficacy of climate forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776.

Oman, L., A. Robock, G. Stenchikov, G.A. Schmidt, and R. Ruedy, 2005: Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D13103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005487.

Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, S.A. Klein, D.J. Seidel, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, P.J. Gleckler, J.S. Boyle, W.D. Collins, K.W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J.E. Hansen, G.S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T.R. Karl, J.R. Lanzante, G.A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551-1556, doi:10.1126/science.1114867.

Schmidt, G.A., G. Hoffmann, D.T. Shindell, and Y. Hu, 2005: Modelling atmospheric stable water isotopes and the potential for constraining cloud processes and stratosphere-troposphere water exchange. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21314, doi:10.1029/2005JD005790.

Schmidt, G.A., and A.N. LeGrande, 2005: The Goldilocks abrupt climate change event. Quat. Sci. Rev., 24, 1109-1110, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.015.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, and S. Harder, 2005: Reply to comment by W.F. Ruddiman on "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation". Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15704, doi:10.1029/2005GL022982.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021900.


Rahmstorf, S., D. Archer, D.S. Ebel, O. Eugster, J. Jouzel, D. Maraun, G.A. Schmidt, J. Severinghaus, A.J. Weaver, and J. Zachos, 2004: Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate. Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 85, 38, 41.

Schmidt, G., 2004: La fulgurante ascension de méthane. La Recherche, no. 378 (September 2004), 48-53. (In French)

Schmidt, G.A., C.M. Bitz, U. Mikolajewicz, and L.-B. Tremblay, 2004: Ice-ocean boundary conditions for coupled models. Ocean Model., 7, 59-74, doi:10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00030-1.

Schmidt, G.A., and M.E. Mann, 2004: Reply to comment on "Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions" by D. Chapman et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07206, doi:10.1029/2003GL019144.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, and S. Harder, 2004: A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23206, doi:10.1029/2004GL021083.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, R.L. Miller, M.E. Mann, and D. Rind, 2004: General circulation modelling of Holocene climate variability. Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 2167-2181, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.005.

Shindell, D.T., and G.A. Schmidt, 2004: Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020724.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann, and G. Faluvegi, 2004: Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004151.


Liu, J.P., G.A. Schmidt, D. Martinson, D.H. Rind, G.L. Russell, and X. Yuan, 2003: Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 108, no. C2, 3053, doi:10.1029/2001JC001167.

Mann, M.E., and G.A. Schmidt, 2003: Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, no. 12, 1607, doi:10.1029/2003GL017170.

Santer, B.D., R. Sausen, T.M.L. Wigley, J.S. Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, J.E. Hansen, G.A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and K.E. Taylor, 2003: Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes. J. Geophys. Res., 108, no. D1, 4002, doi:10.1029/2002JD002258.

Schmidt, G.A., and D.T. Shindell, 2003: Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates. Paleoceanography, 18, no. 1, 1004, doi:10.1029/2002PA000757.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, and M.E. Mann, 2003: Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era. J. Climate, 16, 4094-4107, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<4094:VASFOC>2.0.CO;2.


Gillett, N.P., M.R. Allen, R.E. McDonald, C.A. Senior, D.T. Shindell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2002: How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases? J. Geophys. Res., 107, no. D3, 4022, doi:10.1029/2001JD000589.

Schmidt, G.A., and S. Mulitza, 2002: Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18. Mar. Micropaleontol., 44, 125-140, doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00041-X.


Juillet-Leclerc, A., and G. Schmidt, 2001: A calibration of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer of coral aragonite from Porites. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4135-4138, doi:10.1029/2000GL012538.

Rind, D., P. Demenocal, G.L. Russell, S. Sheth, D. Collins, G.A. Schmidt, and J. Teller, 2001: Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Part I: North Atlantic Deep Water response. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27335-27354, doi:10.1029/2000JD000070.

Rind, D., G.L. Russell, G.A. Schmidt, S. Sheth, D. Collins, P. Demenocal, and J. Teller, 2001: Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Part II: A bi-polar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27355-27366, doi:10.1029/2001JD000954.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann, D. Rind, and A. Waple, 2001: Solar forcing of regional climate change during the Maunder Minimum. Science, 294, 2149-2152, doi:10.1126/science.1064363.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, and D. Rind, 2001: Northern Hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7193-7210, doi:10.1029/2000JD900547.


Lynch-Stieglitz, J., W.B. Curry, N. Slowey, and G.A. Schmidt, 2000: The overturning circulation of the glacial Atlantic. In Reconstructing Ocean History: A Window into the Future. F. Abrantes and A. Mix, Eds. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, pp. 7-31.

Russell, G.L., J.R. Miller, D. Rind, R.A. Ruedy, G.A. Schmidt, and S. Sheth, 2000: Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14891-14898, doi:10.1029/2000JD900156.


Schmidt, G.A., 1999: Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations. Paleoceanography, 14, 422-429, doi:10.1029/1999PA900008.

Schmidt, G.A., 1999: Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model. Paleoceanography, 14, 482-497, doi:10.1029/1999PA900025.

Shindell, D.T., R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399, 452-455, doi:10.1038/20905.


Schmidt, G.A., 1998: Oxygen-18 variations in a global ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1201-1204, doi:10.1029/98GL50866.


Bjornsson, H., L.A. Mysak, and G.A. Schmidt, 1997: Mixed boundary conditions versus coupling with an energy-moisture balance model for a zonally averaged ocean climate model. J. Climate, 10, 2412-2430, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2412:MBCVCW>2.0.CO;2.

Schmidt, G.A., and E.R. Johnson, 1997: The scattering of stratified topographic Rossby waves by seafloor ridges. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 84, 29-52.


Schmidt, G.A., and L.A. Mysak, 1996: Can increased poleward oceanic heat flux explain the warm Cretaceous climate? Paleoceanography, 11, 579-593, doi:10.1029/96PA01851.

Schmidt, G.A., and L.A. Mysak, 1996: The stability of a zonally averaged thermohaline circulation model. Tellus, 48A, 158-178, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1996.00009.x.

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