Publication Abstracts

Stothers 1996

Stothers, R.B., 1996: Major optical depth perturbations to the stratosphere from volcanic eruptions: Pyrheliometric period, 1881-1960. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 3901-3920, doi:10.1029/95JD03237.

A detailed chronology of major stratospheric dust veils from 1881 to 1960 has been constructed by searching the primary literature for relevant observational data of various kinds, especially pyrheliometry. Data from 23 observing sites in both hemispheres have been reduced in a rigorous fashion to yield a table of pyrheliometric optical depth perturbations as a function of year, month, and latitude band. To convert to visual reference wavelengths, the tabular entries should be multiplied by a time-dependent factor that is somewhat greater than unity. Ten measurable volcanic dust veils have been established in this manner and have been analyzed as to their generation, transport, decay, and total mass. These clouds arose from eruptions of Krakatau (1883), an unidentified volcano (1890), Soufrière and Pelée (1902), Santa Maria (1902), Ksudach (1907), Katmai (1912), Puyehue (1921), Paluweh (1928), Komagatake (1929), and Quizapu (1932). Other turbidity indicators have also been used in the analysis, including starlight extinction, purple twilight glows, color of Sun and Moon, polarization of blue sky light, Bishop's ring around the Sun, and dark lunar exlipses. Global stratospheric aerosol loadings have been computed from the peak turbidities. Agreement with the aerosol masses derived from polar ice cores is good in the important cases of Krakatau, Santa Maria, and (after a major correction of the ice core value) Katmai. During the long period 1881-1992, about 80% of all stratospheric aerosols generated by the largest sulfur-producing eruptions were emplaced during the two short time intervals 1883-1902 and 1982-1991. The long-term (1881-1992) average anuual production rate of stratospheric SO2 from the largest eruptions was 0.8 Tg/yr, about half the average rate since 1981. Implications of the principal results are discussed.

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BibTeX Citation

@article{st00100w,
  author={Stothers, R. B.},
  title={Major optical depth perturbations to the stratosphere from volcanic eruptions: Pyrheliometric period, 1881-1960},
  year={1996},
  journal={J. Geophys. Res.},
  volume={101},
  pages={3901--3920},
  doi={10.1029/95JD03237},
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - JOUR
ID  - st00100w
AU  - Stothers, R. B.
PY  - 1996
TI  - Major optical depth perturbations to the stratosphere from volcanic eruptions: Pyrheliometric period, 1881-1960
JA  - J. Geophys. Res.
VL  - 101
SP  - 3901
EP  - 3920
DO  - 10.1029/95JD03237
ER  -

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