Publication Abstracts

Ross et al. 2008

Ross, R.M., L.B. Quetin, D.G. Martinson, R.A. Ianuzzi, S.E. Stammerjohn, and R.C. Smith, 2008: Palmer LTER: Patterns of distribution of five dominant zooplankton species in the epipelagic zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula, 1993-2004. Deep Sea Res. II, 55, 2086-2105, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.04.037.

Variability in the temporal-spatial distribution and abundance of zooplankton was documented each summer on the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) grid west of the Antarctic Peninsula between Anvers and Adelaide Islands during a 12-yr time series. Oblique tows to 120 m with a 2×2 m fixed-frame net were made at about 50 stations each January/February between 1993 and 2004. The numerically dominant macro- and mesozooplanktonic species > 2 mm included three species of euphausiids (Euphausia superba, Antarctic krill; Thysanoëssa macrura; Euphausia crystallorophias, ice krill), a shelled pteropod (Limacina helicina), and a salp (Salpa thompsoni). Life cycles, life spans, and habitat varied among these species. Abundance data from each year were allocated to 100 km by 20 km (alongshore by on/offshore) grid cells centered on cardinal transect lines and stations within the Palmer LTER grid. The long-term mean or climatology and means for each year were used to calculate annual anomalies across the grid. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to analyze for patterns and trends in the temporal-spatial variability of the five species. Questions included whether there are groups of species with similar patterns, and whether population cycles, species interactions or seasonal sea-ice parameters were correlated with detected patterns. Patterns in the climatology were distinct, and matched those of physical parameters. Common features included higher abundance in the north than in the south, independent of the cross-shelf gradients, and cross-shelf gradients with higher abundance either inshore (E. crystallorophias) or offshore (S. thompsoni). Anomalies revealed either cycles in the population, as episodic recruitment in Antarctic krill, or changes in anomaly pattern between the first and second half of the sampling period. The 1998 year, which coincided with a rapid change from a negative to a positive phase in the SOI, emerged as a year with either significant anomalies or that marked a change in anomaly patterns for different species. PCA analysis showed that the pattern of cumulative variance with increasing number of modes was distinctly different for shorter-lived versus longer-lived species; the first mode accounted for nearly 50% of the variance in the shorter-lived species and less than 25% in the longer-lived species. This suggested that the mechanisms driving variability in the temporal-spatial distribution of the shorter-lived, more oceanic species were less complex and more direct than those for the longer-lived euphausiids. Evidence from both the anomaly plots and the trend analysis suggested that salps have been more consistently present across the shelf from 1999 to present, and that the range of L. helicina has been expanding. With shorter life spans, these two species can respond more quickly to the increasing heat content on the shelf in this region. The cross-correlation analysis illustrated the negative correlation between salps and ice retreat and the number of ice days, and the positive correlation between the presence of ice krill and the day of ice retreat. These results suggest that for these species, several environmental controls on distribution and abundance were linked to seasonal sea-ice dynamics.

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BibTeX Citation

  author={Ross, R. M. and Quetin, L. B. and Martinson, D. G. and Ianuzzi, R. A. and Stammerjohn, S. E. and Smith, R. C.},
  title={Palmer LTER: Patterns of distribution of five dominant zooplankton species in the epipelagic zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula, 1993-2004},
  journal={Deep Sea Res. II},

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RIS Citation

ID  - ro08900n
AU  - Ross, R. M.
AU  - Quetin, L. B.
AU  - Martinson, D. G.
AU  - Ianuzzi, R. A.
AU  - Stammerjohn, S. E.
AU  - Smith, R. C.
PY  - 2008
TI  - Palmer LTER: Patterns of distribution of five dominant zooplankton species in the epipelagic zone west of the Antarctic Peninsula, 1993-2004
JA  - Deep Sea Res. II
VL  - 55
SP  - 2086
EP  - 2105
DO  - 10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.04.037
ER  -

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