Publication Abstracts

Rampino and Caldeira 2018

Rampino, M.R., and K. Caldeira, 2018: Comparison of the ages of large-body impacts, flood-basalt eruptions, ocean-anoxic events and extinctions over the last 260 million years: A statistical study. Int. J. Earth Sci., 107, no. 2, 601-608, doi:10.1007/s00531-017-1513-6.

Many studies have linked mass extinction events with the catastrophic effects of large-body impacts and flood-basalt eruptions, sometimes as competing explanations. We find that the ages of at least 10 out of a total of 11 documented extinction events over the last 260 Myr (12 out of 13 if we include two lesser extinction events) coincide, within errors, with the best-known ages of either a large impact crater (≥70 km diameter) or a continental flood-basalt eruption. The null hypothesis that this could occur by chance can be rejected with very high confidence (>99.999%). The ages of large impact craters correlate with recognized extinction events at ∼36 (two impacts), 66, 145 and 215 Myr ago (and possibly an event at ∼168 Myr ago), and the ages of continental flood basalts correlate with extinctions at 66, ∼94, ∼116, 183, 201, 252 and 259 Myr ago (and possibly at ∼133 Myr ago). Furthermore, at least 7 periods of widespread anoxia in the oceans of the last 260 Myr coincide with the ages of flood-basalt eruptions (with 99.999% confidence), and are coeval with extinctions, suggesting causal connections. These statistical relationships argue that most mass extinction events are related to climatic catastrophes produced by the largest impacts and large-volume continental flood-basalt eruptions.

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BibTeX Citation

@article{ra04900q,
  author={Rampino, M. R. and Caldeira, K.},
  title={Comparison of the ages of large-body impacts, flood-basalt eruptions, ocean-anoxic events and extinctions over the last 260 million years: A statistical study},
  year={2018},
  journal={Int. J. Earth Sci.},
  volume={107},
  number={2},
  pages={601--608},
  doi={10.1007/s00531-017-1513-6},
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - JOUR
ID  - ra04900q
AU  - Rampino, M. R.
AU  - Caldeira, K.
PY  - 2018
TI  - Comparison of the ages of large-body impacts, flood-basalt eruptions, ocean-anoxic events and extinctions over the last 260 million years: A statistical study
JA  - Int. J. Earth Sci.
VL  - 107
IS  - 2
SP  - 601
EP  - 608
DO  - 10.1007/s00531-017-1513-6
ER  -

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