Publication Abstracts

Rampino and Self 1993

Rampino, M.R., and S. Self, 1993: Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of ∼74,000 years ago. Quat. Res., 40, 269-280, doi:10.1006/qres.1993.1081.

A general feedback between volcanism and climate at times of transition in the Quaternary climate record is suggested, exemplified by events accompanying the Toba eruption (∼74,000 yr ago), the largest known late Quaternary explosive volcanic eruption. The Toba paroxysm occurred during the δ18O stage 5a-4 transition, a period of rapid ice growth and falling global sea level, which may have been a factor in creating stresses that triggered the volcanic event. Toba is estimated to have produced between 1015 and 1016 g of fine ash and sulfur gases lofted in co-ignimbrite ash clouds to heights of at least 32±5 km, which may have led to dense stratospheric dust and sulfuric acid aerosol clouds. These conditions could have created a brief, dramatic cooling or "volcanic winter," followed by estimated annual Northern Hemisphere surface-temperature decreases of ∼3° to 5°C caused by the longer-lived aerosols. Summer temperature decreases of ≥10°C at high northern latitudes, adjacent to regions already covered by snow and ice, might have increased snow cover and sea-ice extent, accelerating the global cooling already in progress. Evidence for such climate-volcanic feedback, following Milankovitch periodicities, is found at several climatic transitions.

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BibTeX Citation

  author={Rampino, M. R. and Self, S.},
  title={Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of ∼74,000 years ago},
  journal={Quaternary Research},

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RIS Citation

ID  - ra03400p
AU  - Rampino, M. R.
AU  - Self, S.
PY  - 1993
TI  - Climate-volcanism feedback and the Toba eruption of ∼74,000 years ago
JA  - Quat. Res.
JO  - Quaternary Research
VL  - 40
SP  - 269
EP  - 280
DO  - 10.1006/qres.1993.1081
ER  -

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