Publication Abstracts

McFarlane et al. 2021, in press

McFarlane, C.M., P.K. Isevulambire, R.S. Lumbuenamo, A.M.E. Ndinga, R. Dhammapala, X. Jin, V.F. McNeill, C. Malings, R. Subramanian, and D.M. Westervelt, 2021: First measurements of ambient PM2.5 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo and Brazzaville, Republic of Congo using field-calibrated low-cost sensors. Aerosol Air Qual. Res., in press, doi:10.4209/aaqr.200619.

Estimates of air pollution mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are severely limited by a lack of surface observations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Despite being large metropolises, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), population 14.3 million, and Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo (ROC), population 2.4 million, have no reference air pollution monitors at the time of writing. Recently, a few reference monitors have been deployed in other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Kampala, Uganda. A low cost PurpleAir PM2.5 monitor was collocated next to the Kampala US Embassy BAM-1020 (Met One Beta Attenuation Monitor) starting in August 2019. Raw PurpleAir data are strongly correlated with the BAM (r2 = 0.88), but have a mean absolute error of approximately 12 µg/m3. Two calibration models, multiple linear regression and a random forest approach, decrease mean bias from 12 µg/m3 to -1.84 µg/m3 or less and improve the the r2 from 0.88 to 0.96. Given the similarity in climate and emissions in Kampala, we apply the collocated field correction factors to four PurpleAir sensors in Kinshasa, DRC and one in neighboring Brazzaville, ROC deployed beginning April 2018. Annual average PM2.5 for 2019 in Kinshasa is 43.5 µg/m3, more than 4 times higher than WHO Interim Target 1 of 10 µg/m3. Surface PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth were each about 40% lower during the 2020 COVID19 lockdown period compared to the same time period in 2019, which cannot be explained by changes in meteorology or wildfire emissions alone. Our results highlight the need for clean air solutions implementation in the Congo.

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BibTeX Citation

@unpublished{mc09100t,
  author={McFarlane, C. M. and Isevulambire, P. K. and Lumbuenamo, R. S. and Ndinga, A. M. E. and Dhammapala, R. and Jin, X. and McNeill, V. F. and Malings, C. and Subramanian, R. and Westervelt, D. M.},
  title={First measurements of ambient PM2.5 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo and Brazzaville, Republic of Congo using field-calibrated low-cost sensors},
  year={2021},
  journal={Aerosol Air Qual. Res.},
  doi={10.4209/aaqr.200619},
  note={Manuscript accepted for publication}
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - INPR
ID  - mc09100t
AU  - McFarlane, C. M.
AU  - Isevulambire, P. K.
AU  - Lumbuenamo, R. S.
AU  - Ndinga, A. M. E.
AU  - Dhammapala, R.
AU  - Jin, X.
AU  - McNeill, V. F.
AU  - Malings, C.
AU  - Subramanian, R.
AU  - Westervelt, D. M.
PY  - 2021
TI  - First measurements of ambient PM2.5 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo and Brazzaville, Republic of Congo using field-calibrated low-cost sensors
JA  - Aerosol Air Qual. Res.
DO  - 10.4209/aaqr.200619
ER  -

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