Publication Abstracts

McFarlane et al. 2021

McFarlane, C., G. Raheja, C. Malings, E.K.E. Appoh, A.F. Hughes, and D.M. Westervelt, 2021: Application of Gaussian mixture regression for the correction of low cost PM2.5 monitoring data in Accra, Ghana. ACS Earth Space Chem., 5, no. 9, 2268-2279, doi:10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00217.

Low-cost sensors (LCSs) for air quality monitoring have enormous potential to improve air quality data coverage in resource-limited parts of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa. LCSs, however, are affected by environment and source conditions. To establish high-quality data, LCSs must be collocated and calibrated with reference grade PM2.5 monitors. From March 2020, a low-cost PurpleAir PM2.5 monitor was collocated with a Met One Beta Attenuation Monitor 1020 in Accra, Ghana. While previous studies have shown that multiple linear regression (MLR) and random forest regression (RF) can improve accuracy and correlation between PurpleAir and reference data, MLR and RF yielded suboptimal improvement in the Accra collocation (R2=0.81 and R2=0.81, respectively). We present the first application of Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) to air quality data calibration and demonstrate improvement over traditional methods by increasing the collocated PM2.5 correlation and accuracy to R2=0.88 and MAE=2.2 µg/m3. Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are a probability density estimator and clustering method from which nonlinear regressions that tolerate missing inputs can be derived. We find that even when given missing inputs, GMR provides better correlation than MLR and RF performed with complete data. GMR also allows us to estimate calibration certainty. When evaluated, 95% confidence intervals agreed with reference PM2.5 data 96% of the time, suggesting that the model accurately assesses its own confidence. Additionally, clustering within the GMM is consistent with climate characteristics, providing confidence that the calibration approach can learn underlying relationships in data.

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BibTeX Citation

@article{mc01200v,
  author={McFarlane, C. and Raheja, G. and Malings, C. and Appoh, E. K. E. and Hughes, A. F. and Westervelt, D. M.},
  title={Application of Gaussian mixture regression for the correction of low cost PM2.5 monitoring data in Accra, Ghana},
  year={2021},
  journal={ACS Earth Space Chem.},
  volume={5},
  number={9},
  pages={2268--2279},
  doi={10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00217},
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - JOUR
ID  - mc01200v
AU  - McFarlane, C.
AU  - Raheja, G.
AU  - Malings, C.
AU  - Appoh, E. K. E.
AU  - Hughes, A. F.
AU  - Westervelt, D. M.
PY  - 2021
TI  - Application of Gaussian mixture regression for the correction of low cost PM2.5 monitoring data in Accra, Ghana
JA  - ACS Earth Space Chem.
VL  - 5
IS  - 9
SP  - 2268
EP  - 2279
DO  - 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.1c00217
ER  -

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