Publication Abstracts

Marley et al. 2012

Marley, M.S., D. Daumon, M. Cushing, A.S. Ackerman, J.J. Fortney, and R. Freedman, 2012: Masses, radii, and cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets. Astrophys. J., 754, 135, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/135.

The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends, including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition — some reasons for which we discuss. We find the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to whether or not we include the H- and K band spectrum in our analysis. Solutions for planets c and d are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that, like in L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present an exploratory evolution calculation that accounts for this effect. Finally we recompute the the bolometric luminosity of all three planets.

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BibTeX Citation

@article{ma03800l,
  author={Marley, M. S. and Daumon, D. and Cushing, M. and Ackerman, A. S. and Fortney, J. J. and Freedman, R.},
  title={Masses, radii, and cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets},
  year={2012},
  journal={Astrophys. J.},
  volume={754},
  pages={135},
  doi={10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/135},
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - JOUR
ID  - ma03800l
AU  - Marley, M. S.
AU  - Daumon, D.
AU  - Cushing, M.
AU  - Ackerman, A. S.
AU  - Fortney, J. J.
AU  - Freedman, R.
PY  - 2012
TI  - Masses, radii, and cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets
JA  - Astrophys. J.
VL  - 754
SP  - 135
DO  - 10.1088/0004-637X/754/2/135
ER  -

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