Publication Abstracts

Jastrow 1968

Jastrow, R., 1968: The planet Venus. Science, 160, 1403-1410, doi:10.1126/science.160.3835.1403.

The US spacecraft Mariner V and the USSR spacecraft Venera 4 were launched within 2 days of one another in June 1967. They traversed elliptical paths of approximately 200 million miles, and arrived in the vicinity of Venus 5 months later.

En route to the planet, the two spacecraft sampled conditions in the interplanetary medium, including magnetic strengths and concentrations of charged particles of various energies. Approximately 50,000 kilometers from Venus, and approaching it from outside the planet's orbit, that is, away from the Sun, the spacecraft crossed a standing shock or bow wave created by the obstacle which Venus presents to the flow of the solar wind. Penetrating the bow wave, the spacecraft began the phase of their flights in which data were collected on the ionosphere and upper atmosphere of Venus.

The histories of the spacecraft diverged as they drew nearer the planet. Mariner V moved across the dark side, penetrated the bow wave again on the sunlit side, and receded into space; Venera 4 curved downward and ejected a capsule which parachuted to what appeared to be a soft landing on the dark side of the planet near the equator.

The following discussion is based on information contained in Marinver V reports published in Science (29 December 1967), on translations of Venera 4 results which appeared in Pravda (22 October 1967) and in Izvestia (31 October 1967), and on reports presented on 7 and 8 March 1968 at the Second Arizona Conference on Planetary Atmospheres, sponsored by the Kitt Peak National Observatory.

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BibTeX Citation

@article{ja01100t,
  author={Jastrow, R.},
  title={The planet Venus},
  year={1968},
  journal={Science},
  volume={160},
  pages={1403--1410},
  doi={10.1126/science.160.3835.1403},
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - JOUR
ID  - ja01100t
AU  - Jastrow, R.
PY  - 1968
TI  - The planet Venus
JA  - Science
VL  - 160
SP  - 1403
EP  - 1410
DO  - 10.1126/science.160.3835.1403
ER  -

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