Publication Abstracts

Chen et al. 1997

Chen, T.H., A. Henderson-Sellers, P.C.D. Milly, A.J. Pitman, A.C.M. Beljaars, J. Polcher, F. Abramopoulos, A. Boone, S. Chang, F. Chen, Y. Dai, C.E. Desborough, R.E. Dickinson, L. Dümenil, M. Ek, J.R. Garratt, N. Gedney, Y.M. Gusev, J. Kim, R. Koster, E.A. Kowalczyk, K. Laval, J. Lean, D. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, J.-F. Mahfouf, H.-T. Mengelkamp, K. Mitchell, O.N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, A. Robock, C. Rosenzweig, J. Schaake, C.A. Schlosser, J.-P. Schulz, Y. Shao, A.B. Shmakin, D.L. Verseghy, P. Wetzel, E.F. Wood, Y. Xue, Z.-L. Yang, and Q. Zeng, 1997: Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes. J. Climate, 10, 1194-1215, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<1194:CERFTP>2.0.CO;2.

In the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes phase 2a experiment, meteorological data for the year 1987 from Cabauw, the Netherlands, were used as inputs to 23 land-surface flux schemes designed for use in climate and weather models. Schemes were evaluated by comparing their outputs with long-term measurements of surface sensible heat fluxes into the atmosphere and the ground, and of upward longwave radiation and total net radiative fluxes, and also comparing them with latent heat fluxes derived from a surface energy balance. Tuning of schemes by use of the observed flux data was not permitted. On an annual basis, the predicted surface radiative temperature exhibits a range of 2 K across schemes, consistent with the range of about 10 W/m2 in predicted surface net radiation. Most modeled values of monthly net radiation differ from the observations by less than the estimated maximum monthly observational error (±10 W/m2). However, modeled radiative surface temperature appears to have a systematic positive bias in most schemes; this might be explained by an error in assumed emissivity and by models' neglect of canopy thermal heterogeneity. Annual means of sensible and latent heat fluxes, into which net radiation is partitioned, have ranges across schemes of 30 W/m2 and 25 W/m2, respectively. Annual totals of evapotranspiration and runoff, into which the precipitation is partitioned, both have ranges of 315 mm. These ranges in annual heat and water fluxes were approximately halved upon exclusion of the three schemes that have no stomatal resistance under non-water-stressed conditions. Many schemes tend to underestimate latent heat flux and overestimate sensible heat flux in summer, with a reverse tendency in winter. For six schemes, root-mean-square deviations of predictions from monthly observations are less than the estimated upper bounds on observation errors (5 W/m2 for sensible heat flux and 10 W/m2 for latent heat flux). Actual runoff at the site is believed to be dominated by vertical drainage to groundwater, but several schemes produced significant amounts of runoff as overland flow or interflow. There is a range across schemes of 184 mm (40% of total pore volume) in the simulated annual mean root-zone soil moisture. Unfortunately, no measurements of soil moisture were available for model evaluation. A theoretical analysis suggested that differences in boundary conditions used in various schemes are not sufficient to explain the large variance in soil moisture. However, many of the extreme values of soil moisture could be explained in terms of the particulars of experimental setup or excessive evapotranspiration.

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BibTeX Citation

@article{ch05000n,
  author={Chen, T. H. and Henderson-Sellers, A. and Milly, P. C. D. and Pitman, A. J. and Beljaars, A. C. M. and Polcher, J. and Abramopoulos, F. and Boone, A. and Chang, S. and Chen, F. and Dai, Y. and Desborough, C. E. and Dickinson, R. E. and Dümenil, L. and Ek, M. and Garratt, J. R. and Gedney, N. and Gusev, Y. M. and Kim, J. and Koster, R. and Kowalczyk, E. A. and Laval, K. and Lean, J. and Lettenmaier, D. and Liang, X. and Mahfouf, J.-F. and Mengelkamp, H.-T. and Mitchell, K. and Nasonova, O. N. and Noilhan, J. and Robock, A. and Rosenzweig, C. and Schaake, J. and Schlosser, C. A. and Schulz, J.-P. and Shao, Y. and Shmakin, A. B. and Verseghy, D. L. and Wetzel, P. and Wood, E. F. and Xue, Y. and Yang, Z.-L. and Zeng, Q.},
  title={Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes},
  year={1997},
  journal={J. Climate},
  volume={10},
  pages={1194--1215},
  doi={10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010%3C1194%3ACERFTP%3E2.0.CO;2},
}

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RIS Citation

TY  - JOUR
ID  - ch05000n
AU  - Chen, T. H.
AU  - Henderson-Sellers, A.
AU  - Milly, P. C. D.
AU  - Pitman, A. J.
AU  - Beljaars, A. C. M.
AU  - Polcher, J.
AU  - Abramopoulos, F.
AU  - Boone, A.
AU  - Chang, S.
AU  - Chen, F.
AU  - Dai, Y.
AU  - Desborough, C. E.
AU  - Dickinson, R. E.
AU  - Dümenil, L.
AU  - Ek, M.
AU  - Garratt, J. R.
AU  - Gedney, N.
AU  - Gusev, Y. M.
AU  - Kim, J.
AU  - Koster, R.
AU  - Kowalczyk, E. A.
AU  - Laval, K.
AU  - Lean, J.
AU  - Lettenmaier, D.
AU  - Liang, X.
AU  - Mahfouf, J.-F.
AU  - Mengelkamp, H.-T.
AU  - Mitchell, K.
AU  - Nasonova, O. N.
AU  - Noilhan, J.
AU  - Robock, A.
AU  - Rosenzweig, C.
AU  - Schaake, J.
AU  - Schlosser, C. A.
AU  - Schulz, J.-P.
AU  - Shao, Y.
AU  - Shmakin, A. B.
AU  - Verseghy, D. L.
AU  - Wetzel, P.
AU  - Wood, E. F.
AU  - Xue, Y.
AU  - Yang, Z.-L.
AU  - Zeng, Q.
PY  - 1997
TI  - Cabauw experimental results from the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes
JA  - J. Climate
VL  - 10
SP  - 1194
EP  - 1215
DO  - 10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010%3C1194%3ACERFTP%3E2.0.CO;2
ER  -

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