Author Bibliographies

Publications by Gavin A. Schmidt

Submitted

Tremblay, L.B., G.A. Schmidt, S. Pfirman, R. Newton, and P. DeRepentigny, 2015: Is ice-rafted sediment in a North Pole marine record evidence for perennial sea-ice cover? Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, submitted.

2015

Nazarenko, L., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, N. Tausnev, M. Kelley, R. Ruedy, G.L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, Y. Cheng, T.L. Clune, A.D. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, J.E. Hansen, R.J. Healy, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, A.N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, S. Menon, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, M.J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang, 2015: Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, no. 1, 244-267, doi:10.1002/2014MS000403.

Schmidt, G.A., 2015: What should climate scientists advocate for? Bull. Atom. Sci., 71, no. 1, 70-74, doi:10.1177/0096340214563677.

Schmidt, G.A., and S. Sherwood, 2015: A practical philosophy of complex climate modelling. Eur. J. Phil. Sci., 5, no. 2, 149-169, doi:10.1007/s13194-014-0102-9.

2014

Field, R.D., D. Kim, A.N. LeGrande, J. Worden, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2014: Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, no. 16, 6030-6036, doi:10.1002/2014GL060572.

Fischer, R.P., S. Nowicki, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2014: A system of conservative regridding for ice-atmosphere coupling in a General Circulation Model (GCM). Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 883-907, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-883-2014.

Lewis, S.C., A.N. LeGrande, G.A. Schmidt, and M. Kelley, 2014: Comparison of forced ENSO-like hydrological expressions in simulations of the pre-industrial and mid-Holocene. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, no. 12, 7064-7082, doi:10.1002/2013JD020961.

Miller, R.L., G.A. Schmidt, L.S. Nazarenko, N. Tausnev, S.E. Bauer, A.D. Del Genio, M. Kelley, K.K. Lo, R. Ruedy, D.T. Shindell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Cheng, T.L. Clune, G. Faluvegi, J.E. Hansen, R.J. Healy, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, A.N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, S. Menon, V. Oinas, C. Pérez García-Pando, J.P. Perlwitz, M.J. Puma, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G.L. Russell, M. Sato, S. Sun, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang, 2014: CMIP5 historical simulations (1850-2012) with GISS ModelE2. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, no. 2, 441-477, doi:10.1002/2013MS000266.

Rind, D., J. Jonas, N. Balachandran, G.A. Schmidt, and J. Lean, 2014: The QBO in two GISS global climate models: Part 1: Generation of the QBO. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, no. 14, 8798-8824, early on-line, doi:10.1002/2014JD021678.

Santer, B.D., C. Bonfils, J.F. Painter, M.D. Zelinka, C. Mears, S. Solomon, G.A. Schmidt, J.C. Fyfe, J.N.S. Cole, L. Nazarenko, K.E. Taylor, and F.J. Wentz, 2014: Volcanic contribution to decadal changes in tropospheric temperature. Nature Geosci., 7, no. 3, 185-189, doi:10.1038/ngeo2098.

Schmidt, G.A., 2014: On scientists and advocacy: Review of Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming, by Joshua P. Howe. Science, 344, 256, doi:10.1126/science.1251819.

Schmidt, G.A., J.D. Annan, P.J. Bartlein, B.I. Cook, E. Guilyardi, J.C. Hargreaves, S.P. Harrison, M. Kageyama, A.N. LeGrande, B. Konecky, S. Lovejoy, M.E. Mann, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, D. Thompson, A. Timmermann, L.-B. Tremblay, and P. Yiou, 2014: Using paleo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5. Clim. Past, 10, 221-250, doi:10.5194/cp-10-221-2014.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, and K. Tsigaridis, 2014: Reconciling warming trends. Nature Geosci., 7, no. 3, 158-160, doi:10.1038/ngeo2105.

Schmidt, G.A., M. Kelley, L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, G.L. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S.E. Bauer, M.K. Bhat, R. Bleck, V. Canuto, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Cheng, T.L. Clune, A. Del Genio, R. de Fainchtein, G. Faluvegi, J.E. Hansen, R.J. Healy, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, A.N. LeGrande, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, E.E. Matthews, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, V. Oinas, A.O. Oloso, J.P. Perlwitz, M.J. Puma, W.M. Putman, D. Rind, A. Romanou, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, S. Sun, R.A. Syed, N. Tausnev, K. Tsigaridis, N. Unger, A. Voulgarakis, M.-S. Yao, and J. Zhang, 2014: Configuration and assessment of the GISS ModelE2 contributions to the CMIP5 archive. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, no. 1, 141-184, doi:10.1002/2013MS000265.

2013

Lewis, S.C., A.N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2013: Modeling insights into deuterium excess as an indicator of water vapor source conditions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, no. 2, 243-262, doi:10.1029/2012JD017804.

Monteleoni, C., G.A. Schmidt, F. Alexander, A. Niculescu-Mizil, K. Steinhaeuser, M. Tippett, A. Banerjee, M.B. Blumenthal, A.R. Ganguly, J.E. Smerdon, and M. Tedesco, 2013: Climate informatics. In Computational Intelligent Data Analysis for Sustainable Development. T. Yu, N. Chawla, and S. Simoff, Eds., Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Series. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 81-126.

Monteleoni, C., G.A. Schmidt, and S. McQuade, 2013: Climate informatics: Accelerating discovering in climate science with machine learning. Comput. Sci. Eng., 15, 32-41, doi:10.1109/MCSE.2013.50.

Romanou, A., W.W. Gregg, J. Romanski, M. Kelley, R. Bleck, R. Healy, L. Nazarenko, G. Russell, G.A. Schmidt, S. Sun, and N. Tausnev, 2013: Natural air-sea flux of CO2 in simulations of the NASA-GISS climate model: Sensitivity to the physical ocean model formulation. Ocean Model., 66, 26-44, doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2013.01.008.

Santer, B.D., J.F. Painter, C. Bonfils, C.A. Mears, S. Solomon, T.M.L. Wigley, P.J. Gleckler, G.A. Schmidt, C. Doutriaux, N.P. Gillett, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, and F.J. Wentz, 2013: Human and natural influences on the changing thermal structure of the atmosphere. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110, 17235-17240, doi:10.1073/pnas.1305332110.

Shindell, D.T., O. Pechony, A. Voulgarakis, G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Bowman, G. Milly, B. Kovari, R. Ruedy, and G. Schmidt, 2013: Interactive ozone and methane chemistry in GISS-E2 historical and future climate simulations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2653-2689, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2653-2013.

Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, L. Nazarenko, K. Bowman, J.-F. Lamarque, A. Voulgarakis, G.A. Schmidt, O. Pechony, and R. Ruedy, 2013: Attribution of historical ozone forcing to anthropogenic emissions. Nature Clim. Change, 3, 567-670, doi:10.1038/nclimate1835.

2012

Field, R.D., C. Risi, G.A. Schmidt, J. Worden, A. Voulgarakis, A.N. LeGrande, A.H. Sobel, and R.J. Healy, 2012: A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer HDO/H2O retrieval simulator for climate models. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10485-10504, doi:10.5194/acp-12-10485-2012.

Lunt, D.J., A.M. Haywood, G.A. Schmidt, U. Salzmann, P.J. Valdes, H.J. Dowsett, and C.A. Loptson, 2012: On the causes of mid-Pliocene warmth and polar amplification. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 321-322, 128-138, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.12.042.

Schmidt, G.A., 2012: Climate sensitivity - How sensitive is Earth's climate to CO2? PAGES News, 20, no. 1, 11.

Schmidt, G.A., J.H. Jungclaus, C.M. Ammann, E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T.J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N.A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D.T. Shindell, S.K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L.E.A. Vieira, 2012: Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the Last Millennium (v1.1). Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 185-191, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-185-2012.

Sun, M., J. Li, C. Yang, G.A. Schmidt, M. Bambacus, R. Cahalan, Q. Huang, C. Xu, E.U. Noble, and Z. Li, 2012: A web-based geovisual analytical system for climate studies. Future Internet, 4, 1069-1085, doi:10.3390/fi4041069.

Vieira, L.E.A., A. Norton, T. Dudok de Wit, M. Kretzschmar, G.A. Schmidt, and M.C.M. Cheung, 2012: How the inclination of Earth's orbit affects incoming solar irradiance. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L16104, doi:10.1029/2012GL052950.

2011

Carozza, D.A., L.A. Mysak, and G.A. Schmidt, 2011: Methane and environmental change during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM onset as a two-stage event. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L05702, doi:10.1029/2010GL046038.

Koch, D., S. Bauer, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, J.R. McConnell, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, D. Rind, R. Ruedy, G.A. Schmidt, and D. Shindell, 2011: Coupled aerosol-chemistry-climate twentieth century transient model investigation: Trends in short-lived species and climate responses. J. Climate, 24, 2693-2714, doi:10.1175/2011JCLI3582.1.

Kurita, N., D. Noone, C. Risi, G.A. Schmidt, H. Yamada, and K. Yoneyama, 2011: Intraseasonal isotopic variation associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D24101, doi:10.1029/2010JD015209.

LeGrande, A., and G. Schmidt, 2011: Water isotopologues as a quantitative paleosalinity proxy. Paleoceanography, 26, PA3225, doi:10.1029/2010PA002043.

Lee, J., J. Worden, D. Noone, K. Bowman, A. Eldering, A. LeGrande, J.-L.F. Li, G. Schmidt, and S. Sodemann, 2011: Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 741-752, doi:10.5194/acp-11-741-2011.

Lewis, S.C., M.K. Gagan, L.K. Ayliffe, J.-X. Zhao, W.S. Hantoro, P.C. Treble, J.C. Hellstrom, A.N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, G.A. Schmidt, and B.W. Suwargadi, 2011: High-resolution stalagmite reconstructions of Australian-Indonesian monsoon rainfall variability during Heinrich stadial 3 and Greenland interstadial 4. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 303, 133-142, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2010.12.048.

Monteleoni, C., G.A. Schmidt, S. Saroha, and E. Asplund, 2011: Tracking climate models. Stat. Anal. Data Mining, 4, 372-392, doi:10.1002/sam.10126.

Schmidt, G.A., J.H. Jungclaus, C.M. Ammann, E. Bard, P. Braconnot, T.J. Crowley, G. Delaygue, F. Joos, N.A. Krivova, R. Muscheler, B.L. Otto-Bliesner, J. Pongratz, D.T. Shindell, S.K. Solanki, F. Steinhilber, and L.E.A. Vieira, 2011: Climate forcing reconstructions for use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium (v1.0). Geosci. Model Dev., 4, 33-45, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-33-2011.

Schmidt, G.A., M.E. Mann, and S.E. Rutherford, 2011: Discussion of: "A statistical analysis of multiple temperature proxies: Are reconstructions of surface temperatures over the last 1000 years reliable?". Ann. Appl. Stat., 5, 65-70, doi:10.1214/10-AOAS398D.

Tierney, J.E., S.C. Lewis, B.I. Cook, A.N. LeGrande, and G.A. Schmidt, 2011: Model, proxy and isotopic perspectives on the East African Humid Period. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 307, 103-112, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.038.

2010

Field, R.D., G.W.K. Moore, G. Holdsworth, and G.A. Schmidt, 2010: A GCM-based analysis of circulation controls on δ18O in the southwest Yukon, Canada: Implications for climate reconstructions in the region. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L05706, doi:10.1029/2009GL041408.

Foster, G., J.D. Annan, P.D. Jones, M.E. Mann, B. Mullan, J. Renwick, J. Salinger, G.A. Schmidt, and K.E. Trenberth, 2010: Comment on "Influence of the Southern Oscillation on tropospheric temperature" by J.D. McLean, C.R. de Freitas, and R.M. Carter. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D09110, doi:10.1029/2009JD012960.

Lacis, A.A, G.A. Schmidt, D. Rind, and R.A. Ruedy, 2010: Atmospheric CO2: Principal control knob governing Earth's temperature. Science, 330, 356-359, doi:10.1126/science.1190653.

Lewis, S.C., A.N. LeGrande, M. Kelley, and G.A. Schmidt, 2010: Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events. Clim. Past, 6, 325-343, doi:10.5194/cp-6-325-2010.

Lunt, D.J., A.M. Haywood, G.A. Schmidt, U. Salzmann, P.J. Valdes, and H.J. Dowsett, 2010: Earth system sensitivity inferred from Pliocene modelling and data. Nature Geosci., 3, 60-64, doi:10.1038/NGEO706.

Schmidt, G.A, 2010: Enhancing the relevance of palaeoclimate model/data comparisons for assessments of future climate change. J. Quat. Sci., 25, 79-87, doi:10.1002/jqs.1314.

Schmidt, G., 2010: Does science progress? Glibert Plass redux. Amer. Scientist, 98, no. 1, 64-65, doi:10.1511/2010.82.58.

Schmidt, G.A., R. Ruedy, R.L. Miller, and A.A. Lacis, 2010: The attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D20106, doi:10.1029/2010JD014287.

2009

Benestad, R.E., and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Solar trends and global warming. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14101, doi:10.1029/2008JD011639.

Field, C.V., and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Model-based constraints on interpreting 20th century trends in ice core 10Be. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D12110, doi:10.1029/2008JD011217.

Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, and D.T. Shindell, 2009: Interpreting 10Be changes during the Maunder Minimum. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D02113, doi:10.1029/2008JD010578.

Jones, P.D., K.R. Briffa, T.J. Osborn, J.M. Lough, T.D. van Ommen, B.M. Vinther, J. Luterbacher, E.R. Wahl, F.W. Zwiers, M.E. Mann, G.A. Schmidt, C.M. Ammann, B.M. Buckley, K.M. Cobb, J. Esper, H. Goosse, N. Graham, E. Jansen, T. Kiefer, C. Kull, M. Küttel, E. Mosley-Thompson, J.T. Overpeck, N. Riedwyl, M. Schulz, A.W. Tudhope, R. Villalba, H. Wanner, E. Wolff, and E. Xoplaki, 2009: High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: A review of current status and future prospects. Holocene, 19, 3-49, doi:10.1177/0959683608098952.

Koch, D., S. Menon, A. Del Genio, R. Ruedy, I. Aleinov, and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Distinguishing aerosol impacts on climate over the past century. J. Climate, 22, 2659-2677, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2573.1.

LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives. Clim. Past, 5, 441-455, doi:10.5194/cp-5-441-2009.

Mann, M.E., G.A. Schmidt, S.K. Miller, and A.N. LeGrande, 2009: Potential biases in inferring Holocene temperature trends from long-term borehole information. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05708, doi:10.1029/2008GL036354.

Schmidt, G.A., 2009: Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. In Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments. V. Gornitz, Ed., Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, 696-700.

Schmidt, G., 2009: Wrong but useful. Phys. World, 13, no. 10, 33-35.

Schmidt, G.A., 2009: Spurious correlations between recent warming and indices of local economic activity. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 2041-2048, doi:10.1002/joc.1831.

Schmidt, G., and D. Archer, 2009: Climate change: Too much of a bad thing. Nature, 458, 1117-1118, doi:10.1038/4581117a.

Schmidt, G., and J. Wolfe, 2009: Climate Change: Picturing the Science. W.W. Norton.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, D.M. Koch, G.A. Schmidt, N. Unger, and S.E. Bauer, 2009: Improved attribution of climate forcing to emissions. Science, 326, 716-718, doi:10.1126/science.1174760.

Usoskin, I.G., C.V. Field, G.A. Schmidt, A. Leppänen, A. Aldahan, G.A. Kovaltsov, G. Possnert, and R.K. Ungar, 2009: Short-term production and synoptic influences on atmospheric 7Be concentrations. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06108, doi:10.1029/2008JD011333.

Wright, J.S., A.H. Sobel, and G.A. Schmidt, 2009: Influence of condensate evaporation on water vapor and its stable isotopes in a GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12804, doi:10.1029/2009GL038091.

2008

Carlson, A.E., A.N. LeGrande, D.W. Oppo, R.E. Came, G.A. Schmidt, F.S. Anslow, J.M. Licciardi, and E.A. Obbink, 2008: Rapid early Holocene deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. Nature Geosci., 1, 620-624, doi:10.1038/ngeo285.

Foster, G., J.D. Annan, G.A. Schmidt, and M.E. Mann, 2008: Comment on "Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth's climate system" by S.E. Schwartz. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15102, doi:10.1029/2007JD009373.

LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, 2008ss: Ensemble, water-isotope enabled, coupled general circulation modeling insights into the 8.2-kyr event. Paleoceanography, 23, PA3207, doi:10.1029/2008PA001610.

Masson-Delmotte, V., S. Hou, A. Ekaykin, J. Jouzel, A. Aristarain, R.T. Bernardo, D. Bromwich, O. Cattani, M. Delmotte, S. Falourd, M. Frezzotti, H. Gallée, L. Genoni, E. Isaksson, A. Landais, M.M. Helsen, G. Hoffmann, J. Lopez, V. Morgan, H. Motoyama, D. Noone, H. Oerter, J.R. Petit, A. Royer, R. Uemura, G.A. Schmidt, E. Schlosser, J.C. Simöes, E.J. Steig, B. Stenni, M. Stievenard, M.R. van den Broeke, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.J. van de Berg, F. Vimeux, and J.W.C. White, 2008: A review of Antarctic surface snow isotopic composition: Observations, atmospheric circulation, and isotopic modeling. J. Climate, 21, 3359-3387, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI2139.1.

Santer, B.D., P.W. Thorne, L. Haimberger, K.E. Taylor, T.M.L. Wigley, J.R. Lanzante, S. Solomon, M. Free, P.J. Gleckler, P.D. Jones, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, C. Mears, D. Nychka, G.A. Schmidt, S.C. Sherwood, and F.J. Wentz, 2008: Consistency of modelled and observed temperature trends in the tropical troposphere. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 1703-1722, doi:10.1002/joc.1756.

Schmidt, G., 2008: Commentary: To blog or not to blog? Nature Geosci., 1, 208, doi:10.1038/ngeo170.

Sud, Y.C., G.K. Walker, Y.P. Zhou, G.A. Schmidt, K.M. Lau, and R.F. Cahalan, 2008: Effects of doubled CO2 on tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for onset of deep convection and maximum SST: Simulations based inferences. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12707, doi:10.1029/2008GL033872.

2007

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, P. Kharecha, A. Lacis, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, K. Lo, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, J. Jonas, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, R. Schmunk, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2007: Dangerous human-made interference with climate: A GISS modelE study. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2287-2312, doi:10.5194/acp-7-2287-2007.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, P. Kharecha, A. Lacis, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, K. Lo, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, J. Jonas, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow, J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, R. Schmunk, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2007: Climate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS modelE. Clim. Dyn., 29, 661-696, doi:10.1007/s00382-007-0255-8.

Harder, S.L., D.T. Shindell, G.A. Schmidt, and E.J. Brook, 2007: A GCM study of CH4 emissions during the Holocene and glacial-interglacial transitions constrained by ice core data. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1011, doi:10.1029/2005GB002680.

Little, C.M., M. Oppenheimer, R.B. Alley, V. Balaji, G.K.C. Clarke, T.L. Delworth, R. Hallberg, D.M. Holland, C.L. Hulbe, S. Jacobs, J.V. Johnson, H. Levy, W.H. Lipscomb, S.J. Marshall, B.R. Parizek, A.J. Payne, G.A. Schmidt, R.J. Stouffer, D.G. Vaughan, and M. Winton, 2007: Toward a new generation of ice sheet models. Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. U., 88, no. 52, 578-579, doi:10.1029/2007EO520002.

Oppo, D.W., G.A. Schmidt, and A.N. LeGrande, 2007: Seawater isotope constraints on tropical hydrology during the Holocene. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L13701, doi:10.1029/2007GL030017.

Romanou, A., B. Liepert, G.A. Schmidt, W.B. Rossow, R.A. Ruedy, and Y.-C. Zhang, 2007: 20th Century changes in surface solar irradiance in simulations and observations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05713, doi:10.1029/2006GL028356.

Schmidt, G.A., 2007: The physics of climate modeling. Phys. Today, 60, no. 1, 72-73.

Schmidt, G., 2007: Clouding the issue of climate. Phys. World, 20, no. 6 (June 2007), 44-45.

Schmidt, G.A., A.N. LeGrande, and G. Hoffmann, 2007: Water isotope expressions of intrinsic and forced variability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10103, doi:10.1029/2006JD007781.

Schmidt, G.A., A. Romanou, and B. Liepert, 2007: Further comment on "A perspective on global warming, dimming, and brightening". Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. U., 88, no. 45, 473.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, S.E. Bauer, D. Koch, N. Unger, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, and D.G. Streets, 2007: Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D20103, doi:10.1029/2007JD008753.

Toptygin, A.Y., K.G. Gribanov, V.I. Zakharov, Y. Kasai, Kagawa A., Y. Murayama, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, G. Hoffmann, and J. Jouzel, 2007: Determination of vertical HDO/H2O profile from high-resolution atmospheric transmission spectra. Atmos. Ocean. Opt. J., 20, 224-228.

Tremblay, L.B., M.M. Holland, I.V. Gorodetskaya, and G.A. Schmidt, 2007: An ice-free Arctic? Opportunities for computational science. Comput. Sci. Eng., 9, no. 3, 65-74.

2006

Aleinov, I., and G.A. Schmidt, 2006: Water isotopes in the GISS ModelE land surface scheme. Global Planet. Change, 51, 108-120, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.12.010.

Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, and D. Koch, 2006: Solar and climate effects on 10Be. Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital., 76, 805-809.

Field, C.V., G.A. Schmidt, D. Koch, and C. Salyk, 2006: Modeling production and climate-related impacts on 10Be concentration in ice cores. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D15107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006410.

Henderson-Sellers, A., M. Fischer, I. Aleinov, K. McGuffie, W.J. Riley, G.A. Schmidt, K. Sturm, K. Yoshimura, and O. Irannejad, 2006: Stable water isotope simulation by current land-surface schemes: Results of iPILPS Phase 1. Global Planet. Change, 51, 34-58, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2006.01.003.

Koch, D., G.A. Schmidt, and C.V. Field, 2006: Sulfur, sea salt and radionuclide aerosols in GISS ModelE. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06206, doi:10.1029/2004JD005550.

LeGrande, A.N., and G.A. Schmidt, 2006: Global gridded data set of the oxygen isotopic composition in seawater. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L12604, doi:10.1029/2006GL026011.

LeGrande, A.N., G.A. Schmidt, D.T. Shindell, C.V. Field, R.L. Miller, D.M. Koch, G. Faluvegi, and G. Hoffmann, 2006: Consistent simulations of multiple proxy responses to an abrupt climate change event. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 103, 837-842, doi:10.1073pnas.0510095103.

Miller, R.L., R.V. Cakmur, J.P. Perlwitz, I.V. Geogdzhayev, P. Ginoux, K.E. Kohfeld, D. Koch, C. Prigent, R. Ruedy, G.A. Schmidt, and I. Tegen, 2006: Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences ModelE atmospheric general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06208, doi:10.1029/2005JD005796.

Miller, R.L., G.A. Schmidt, and D.T. Shindell, 2006: Forced annular variations in the 20th century Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report models. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18101, doi:10.1029/2005JD006323.

Schmidt, G.A., 2006: La modélisation de variations climatiques. In L'Homme face au climat. E. Bard, Ed. Odile-Jacob, 103-130.

Schmidt, G.A., R. Ruedy, J.E. Hansen, I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, A.D. Friend, T.M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G.L. Russell, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, P.H. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao, 2006: Present day atmospheric simulations using GISS ModelE: Comparison to in-situ, satellite and reanalysis data. J. Climate, 19, 153-192, doi:10.1175/JCLI3612.1.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Unger, E. Aguilar, G.A. Schmidt, D.M. Koch, S.E. Bauer, and R.L. Miller, 2006: Simulations of preindustrial, present-day, and 2100 conditions in the NASA GISS composition and climate model G-PUCCINI. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4427-4459, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4427-2006.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, J.E. Hansen, and S. Sun, 2006: Solar and anthropogenic forcing of tropical hydrology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24706, doi:10.1029/2006GL027468.

Toptygin, A.Y., K.G. Gribanov, R. Imasu, G. Schmidt, and V.I. Zakharov, 2006: Latitudinal variations of the vertical profiles and columnar HDO/H2O ratio in the atmosphere over the ocean retrieved from IMG/ADEOS data. Atmos. Ocean. Opt. J., 19, 787-791.

2005

Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, J. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G.A. Schmidt, and N. Tausnev, 2005: Earth's energy imbalance: Confirmation and implications. Science, 308, 1431-1435, doi:10.1126/science.1110252.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, R. Ruedy, L. Nazarenko, A. Lacis, G.A. Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, N. Bell, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, S. Menon, R.L. Miller, P. Minnis, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, J.P. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, D. Shindell, P. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, B. Wielicki, T. Wong, M. Yao, and S. Zhang, 2005: Efficacy of climate forcings. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18104, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776.

Oman, L., A. Robock, G. Stenchikov, G.A. Schmidt, and R. Ruedy, 2005: Climatic response to high-latitude volcanic eruptions. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D13103, doi:10.1029/2004JD005487.

Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, C. Mears, F.J. Wentz, S.A. Klein, D.J. Seidel, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, P.J. Gleckler, J.S. Boyle, W.D. Collins, K.W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, M. Free, Q. Fu, J.E. Hansen, G.S. Jones, R. Ruedy, T.R. Karl, J.R. Lanzante, G.A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, G. Russell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in the tropical atmosphere. Science, 309, 1551-1556, doi:10.1126/science.1114867.

Schmidt, G.A., and A.N. LeGrande, 2005: The Goldilocks abrupt climate change event. Quat. Sci. Rev., 24, 1109-1110, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.015.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, and S. Harder, 2005: Reply to comment by W.F. Ruddiman on "A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation". Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L15704, doi:10.1029/2005GL022982.

Schmidt, G.A., G. Hoffmann, D.T. Shindell, and Y. Hu, 2005: Modelling atmospheric stable water isotopes and the potential for constraining cloud processes and stratosphere-troposphere water exchange. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21314, doi:10.1029/2005JD005790.

Shindell, D.T., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2005: An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04803, doi:10.1029/2004GL021900.

2004

Rahmstorf, S., D. Archer, D.S. Ebel, O. Eugster, J. Jouzel, D. Maraun, G.A. Schmidt, J. Severinghaus, A.J. Weaver, and J. Zachos, 2004: Cosmic rays, carbon dioxide, and climate. Eos Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 85, 38, 41.

Schmidt, G., 2004: La fulgurante ascension de méthane. La Recherche, no. 378 (September 2004), 48-53.

Schmidt, G.A., and M.E. Mann, 2004: Reply to comment on "Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions" by D. Chapman et al. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L07206, doi:10.1029/2003GL019144.

Schmidt, G.A., C.M. Bitz, U. Mikolajewicz, and L.-B. Tremblay, 2004: Ice-ocean boundary conditions for coupled models. Ocean Model., 7, 59-74, doi:10.1016/S1463-5003(03)00030-1.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, and S. Harder, 2004: A note on the relationship between ice core methane concentrations and insolation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23206, doi:10.1029/2004GL021083.

Schmidt, G.A., D.T. Shindell, R.L. Miller, M.E. Mann, and D. Rind, 2004: General circulation modelling of Holocene climate variability. Quat. Sci. Rev., 23, 2167-2181, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.08.005.

Shindell, D.T., and G.A. Schmidt, 2004: Southern Hemisphere climate response to ozone changes and greenhouse gas increases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18209, doi:10.1029/2004GL020724.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann, and G. Faluvegi, 2004: Dynamic winter climate response to large tropical volcanic eruptions since 1600. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004151.

2003

Liu, J.P., G.A. Schmidt, D. Martinson, D.H. Rind, G.L. Russell, and X. Yuan, 2003: Sensitivity of sea ice to physical parameterizations in the GISS global climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 108, no. C2, 3053, doi:10.1029/2001JC001167.

Mann, M.E., and G.A. Schmidt, 2003: Ground vs. surface air temperature trends: Implications for borehole surface temperature reconstructions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, no. 12, 1607, doi:10.1029/2003GL017170.

Santer, B.D., R. Sausen, T.M.L. Wigley, J.S. Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, J.E. Hansen, G.A. Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and K.E. Taylor, 2003: Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperature in models, reanalyses, and observations: Decadal changes. J. Geophys. Res., 108, no. D1, 4002, doi:10.1029/2002JD002258.

Schmidt, G.A., and D.T. Shindell, 2003: Atmospheric composition, radiative forcing, and climate change as a consequence of a massive methane release from gas hydrates. Paleoceanography, 18, no. 1, 1004, doi:10.1029/2002PA000757.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, and M.E. Mann, 2003: Volcanic and solar forcing of climate change during the preindustrial era. J. Climate, 16, 4094-4107, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<4094:VASFOC>2.0.CO;2.

2002

Gillett, N.P., M.R. Allen, R.E. McDonald, C.A. Senior, D.T. Shindell, and G.A. Schmidt, 2002: How linear is the Arctic Oscillation response to greenhouse gases? J. Geophys. Res., 107, no. D3, 4022, doi:10.1029/2001JD000589.

Schmidt, G.A., and S. Mulitza, 2002: Global calibration of ecological models for planktic foraminifera from coretop carbonate oxygen-18. Mar. Micropaleontol., 44, 125-140, doi:10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00041-X.

2001

Juillet-Leclerc, A., and G. Schmidt, 2001: A calibration of the oxygen isotope paleothermometer of coral aragonite from Porites. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 4135-4138, doi:10.1029/2000GL012538.

Rind, D., P. Demenocal, G.L. Russell, S. Sheth, D. Collins, G.A. Schmidt, and J. Teller, 2001: Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Part I: North Atlantic Deep Water response. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27335-27354, doi:10.1029/2000JD000070.

Rind, D., G.L. Russell, G.A. Schmidt, S. Sheth, D. Collins, P. Demenocal, and J. Teller, 2001: Effects of glacial meltwater in the GISS Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Part II: A bi-polar seesaw in Atlantic Deep Water production. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 27355-27366, doi:10.1029/2001JD000954.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann, D. Rind, and A. Waple, 2001: Solar forcing of regional climate change during the Maunder Minimum. Science, 294, 2149-2152, doi:10.1126/science.1064363.

Shindell, D.T., G.A. Schmidt, R.L. Miller, and D. Rind, 2001: Northern Hemisphere winter climate response to greenhouse gas, ozone, solar, and volcanic forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7193-7210, doi:10.1029/2000JD900547.

2000

Lynch-Stieglitz, J., W.B. Curry, N. Slowey, and G.A. Schmidt, 2000: The overturning circulation of the glacial Atlantic. In Reconstructing Ocean History: A Window into the Future. F. Abrantes, and A. Mix, Eds. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 7-31.

Russell, G.L., J.R. Miller, D. Rind, R.A. Ruedy, G.A. Schmidt, and S. Sheth, 2000: Comparison of model and observed regional temperature changes during the past 40 years. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14891-14898, doi:10.1029/2000JD900156.

1999

Schmidt, G.A., 1999: Error analysis of paleosalinity calculations. Paleoceanography, 14, 422-429, doi:10.1029/1999PA900008.

Schmidt, G.A., 1999: Forward modeling of carbonate proxy data from planktonic foraminifera using oxygen isotope tracers in a global ocean model. Paleoceanography, 14, 482-497, doi:10.1029/1999PA900025.

Shindell, D.T., R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt, and L. Pandolfo, 1999: Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. Nature, 399, 452-455, doi:10.1038/20905.

1998

Schmidt, G.A., 1998: Oxygen-18 variations in a global ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1201-1204, doi:10.1029/98GL50866.

1997

Bjornsson, H., L.A. Mysak, and G.A. Schmidt, 1997: Mixed boundary conditions versus coupling with an energy-moisture balance model for a zonally averaged ocean climate model. J. Climate, 10, 2412-2430, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2412:MBCVCW>2.0.CO;2.

Schmidt, G.A., and E.R. Johnson, 1997: The scattering of stratified topographic Rossby waves by seafloor ridges. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 84, 29-52.

1996

Schmidt, G.A., and L.A. Mysak, 1996: Can increased poleward oceanic heat flux explain the warm Cretaceous climate? Paleoceanography, 11, 579-593, doi:10.1029/96PA01851.

Schmidt, G.A., and L.A. Mysak, 1996: The stability of a zonally averaged thermohaline circulation model. Tellus, 48A, 158-178, doi:10.1034/j.1600-0870.1996.00009.x.