Yang et al. 2010
Yang, W., W. Ni-Meister,, P.R. Moorcroft, A.H. Strahler, and A. Oliphant, 2010: A clumped-foliage canopy radiative transfer model for a global dynamic terrestrial ecosystem model. II: Comparison to measurements. Agr. Forest Meteorol., 150, 895-907, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.02.008.
In a previous paper, we developed an Analytical Clumped Two-Stream model (ACTS) of canopy radiative transfer from an analytical geometric optical and radiative transfer (GORT) scheme (Ni-Meister et al., 2010). The ACTS model accounts for clumping of foliage and the influence of trunks in vegetation canopies for modeling of photosynthesis, radiative fluxes and surface albedo in dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs), and particularly for the Ent Dynamic Global Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (DGTEM). This study evaluates the gap probability and transmittance estimates from the ACTS model by comparing the modeled results with ground-based data, as well as with the original full GORT model and a layered Beer's law scheme. The ground data used in this study include vertical profile measurements of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in 1) mixed deciduous forests in Morgan-Monroe State Forest, IN, USA, 2) coniferous forests in central Canada, 3) mixed deciduous forests in Harvard Forest, MA, and 4) ground lidar measurements of the canopy gap fraction in woodland in The model comparisons with these measurements demonstrate that the ACTS model achieves better or similar performance compared to the full GORT and the layered Beer's law schemes with regard to agreements with field measurements and computational cost. The ACTS model has excellent accuracy and flexibility to model the canopy gap probability and transmittance for various forest scenarios. Also, it has advantages relative to the currently widely used two-stream scheme through better radiation estimation for photosynthesis by accounting for the impact of both vertical and horizontal structure heterogeneity of complex vegetation on radiative transfer. Currently the ACTS is being implemented in Ent and will be further tested for how it improves surface energy balance and carbon flux estimates.