Miller et al. 1983
Miller, J.R.,, and L.-C. Tsang, 1983: Annual oceanic heat transports computed from an atmospheric model. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 7, 95-109, doi:10.1016/0377-0265(83)90012-X.
Mean annual estimates of the oceanic poleward energy transport are obtained using a global atmospheric general circulation model. The computations are carried out by using the atmospheric model to determine the net annual heat flux into the ocean on an 8° × 10° grid. Assuming no net annual heat storage, the annual surface heat fluxes into any zonal band must be accompanied by a corresponding meridional heat transport in the ocean. Heat is transported northward at all latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean and is transported poleward in both hemispheres in the Pacific Ocean. To account for the net northward transport throughout the Atlantic, heat is transported into the Atlantic from the Indian and Pacific basins. The results are compared with several recent direct and indirect calculations of oceanic meridional heat transports.